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Full text of "An account of a voyage for the discovery of a north-west passage by Hudson's streights, to the western and southern ocean of America : performed in the year 1746 and 1747, in the ship California, Capt. Francis Smith, commander"

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cTT^Tiaes "B . Ford 


A N 

A C C Q V N T 

(6'f" A 


For the DiTcovcry of a 

North- Weft Passage 

B y 

Hudfon\ S T R E I G H T S, 

T O T H E 

Weftern and Southern Ocean 



Performed in the Year 1746 and 1747, in the Ship 
California^ Capt. Francis Smithy Commander, 

By the CLERK of the CALIFORN IJ. 
Adorned with CUT S and M A^ S. 
VOL. I. . 
LONDON, Printed ; 

And Sold by Mr. JOLLIFFE, in Se. yames's-Jireet ; MrCoRBETT, 
in Fleet-jireet i and Mr. Clarke, under the Royal Ejcchange, 







Propofe, hi this Volume, an Ac- 
cou?2f of the Tranfaaiom of this 
Voyage^ and of whatever during 
that Time occurred worthy of Ob- 
Jervation, either in Relation to natural Hi- 
ftory, or other Incidents until the loth of 
December 1746; a?jd an Account of the 
Manners of the Indi^ius frequenting the Parts 
adjacent to Hudfon'i Streights and Bay, 
and thefe Cujioms compared. with thofe of the 
mojl ancient Times. 

What hath been done by thofe who have' 

formerly gone upon the Difcovery of a North- 

Weft Paffage, hath been ?nade publick either 

by themjehes or others, with the Intent that 

A the 

4J ^J if' "• •:^-' 


the fucceeding Attempers might avoid the 
Hazards aiid Dangers they had met ivith^ 
and be?2ejit by their Ohfervations. For the 
very fame Reafons I think myjelf obliged to 
publijh a true and plain Narraiive of this 
Voyage, which deferves not lefs, if not jncrc^ 
than any of the preceding ones to be conunu- 
nicated to the Piiblick. 

Ihofe Ge7itlemen who fiibfcribed to this 
Undertaking will here receive an impartial 
Account^ and J 1 hope^ will be Jatisfied by the 
Reafons given for their particular Kxpe Sta- 
tions not being anfwered^ and will re- 
ceive a greater hformation of thofe almoji 
unknown Farts of the Worlds than the) could 
foffibly have gathered from any Freatije be- 
fore this J and jrom this, and the fucceeding 
Volume, will be able to judge what may be 
expeBed from another Expedition. 

The Account of the Weather from the I'ime 
the Ships went from the Orkneys, to their 
Arrival on the Wejlern Side of Hudlon'j 
Bay, may be thought tedious, but I hope it 
will meet with the Excife of thofe who fjall 
think itfo ', when they confider that nothing is 
more inquired of ter in a Voyage of this kind, 
than theTemperature of the Climates which are 
fafjed, and that there is no other Way of giving 



an Idea of it, than by Jetting down the Wea- 
ther of every Day in particular ^ with iti 
Alterations and Changes ; never thelefs it is put 
in fuch a Manner, as it may be eafily pajjed 


By giving a Particular Accomit of the 
Ice met with in the Voyage, of the Method 
of managing a Ship, when amongji it, and by 
infer ting what is ohfervahle out of other Voy- 
agers into thefe Parts relating to the Ice, every 
one will have a clear Idea of the Nature of 
the Ice in fuch Paffdges, and from whence the 
Ice proceeds, by which Ships that make this 
Voyage are Jo much obJlruSled. 

The Account of the Winter I hope will be^ 
to the Reader'*s SatisfaBion. 1 have been 
*very Particular in de/cribing the Habitations 
which the People dwelt in during the Winter, 
the Habit they wore^ and Manner of Livi?ig, 
as it may be of Service in any future Expe- 
dition^ and what is objerved as to the Fowl 
and the Be aft , not being taken Notice of in 
any Accomit before, I thought it might be 
worth the Reader'' s Attention, 

As to the Manners of the Indhns freguefif- 

ing the Southern Part of Hudfon'j Bay, and 

A 2 as 


as to the Efkemaux Indians who frequetit 
Hudfon'i StreightSy and the Weflern Part 
of the Bay^ 1 have mentioned what I could 
attain by my own Ohfervation, and that 
which 1 could rely on as FaB, from the Re- 
lations which were made me by others. There 
being a great Similitude i?i the Manners of 
the Indians frequenting the South Part of 
Hudfon' Bay^ with the Manners of the People 
in the earliefl Times, I thought an Inquiry of 
that kind might not he difjatisfaBory to the 
Curious. Father Laffitau, a fefuit^ hath 
dofie this with refpeB to the Hurons and Iro- 
quois Indians, and where thefe Indians agree 
in their Manners with the Hurons and Iro- 
quois, I have principally follo-'iVed the Father ^ 
but where they do ?iot agree in Manners with 
the Iroquois ^7W Hurons, I have there fiewn 
the Similitude of their Manners with the 
Antients upon Refearches of my own. 

The many Quotations taken from the Ac- 
counts of the for?ner Difcoverers^ not only 
make this Account more intelligible^ but alfo 
make it rather to be a compleat Hifory of 
all the Undertakings for the Di [cover y of a 
North'lVe/i Pajjage^ than of one particu- 
lar Voyage. I was aljb in Part induced to 
thisy as the former Accounts are fcarce, (el^ 
dom taken in Hand, and are in a fair Way 



of being intirely lofi^ as in a late Edition of 
Voyages they were rejected to make room for 
Accounts of other Voyages which were more 
amtifing. 7he Publication of this Work in 
two Vol me s injiead of one, as there is no 
Augmentation of Price to thofe who have 
Jubjcribed, I belie've will need no Apology, and 
the Alteration of the Manner of the Work 
from what was mentioned in the Propofal, I 
doubt not^ will meet their Excufe when they 
foall fee the Reajons for fo doing in my Pre- 
face to the next Volume, 

Inhere is a NeceJJity to mention the Difn^ 
genuous 'treatment I have met with after I 
had publified my Propofals^ in having the 
Work reprefented as a falfe partial Account^ 
though no one ever read it^ or jaw it, and 
that it was compiled from bad Materials ;. as 
to the Falfjood and Partiality of ity thefe 
Gentlemen 1 believe will appear now to be as 
inuch miftaken in that Refpe6l, as they were 
in their Reprejentations^ that the Work would 
never come out. 

As to the Materials from which the Work 
is taken^ 1 mujl obferve, that, excepting Cap- 
tain Moor'j Leg- Book, and one Report, a 
Copy of which 1 have, all the other Papers 
relating to the Voyage^ and which are in the 


:Ti P R E IJ* A C E. 

Hands of the North-Wejl Committee^ laere 
written by me ; and are Copies of Originals 
in the Hands of Capt. Smith, all nf which 
(excepting two) were eith r drawn Jblely by 
me, 0^ I ajfifted in drawing them, and alfo 
took the Minutes from which they loere com- 
fojed, when out in the Long-Boat : IV hat 
Pretence then hath the Author of the Ge- 
nuine Account, who hath only made life cf 
my Copies in the Hands of the Gentlemen of 
the North-fVeJl Committee^ never Jaw the 
Originals^ or the Mi7iutes, or fome of the 
Places referred to in Juch Papers^ to boajl 
the Superiority of his Account over mine^ as 
being drawn from original Papers as ft forth 
in the Advertifement^ and which Papers he 
knew at the fame Time I was the principal 
Author off 

Befdes all the Informations which 1 could 
have from the Ship's Papers^ whichy as 
Clerkj could not mtfs my Objervation. My 
Intention to publifl: an Account oj the Voyage^ 
caujed me to keep a particular fourjialfrom 
my frfl fitting out ; the Author of the Ge- 
nuine Account had no Intention of writing 
an Account of a Voyage^ until fome Weeks 
after the Ships came Home. 



As to the Author of the Genuine Account, 
being Agent for the Stibfcr iters, he ?2ever 
was underjiood to be in that Chara5ier during 
the Voyage, he was in the Injirudlions given 
the Captains named as a Mineraliji and 
Draft /man, and to be as all the Officers above 
the Boatfwain were, ane of the Council, I 
beg heave to appeal to the Gentlemen of the 
North-Weft Committee, whether they did not 
fo ft He him in the lnftru5lions, and whether 
they ordered him to be received in any other 
Character than Miner ali ft and Draftfman ; 
whether there hath not been a greater Part of 
the Coaft furveyed by Captain Smith, than 
by Captain Moor, whom the Author of the 
Genuine Account always accompajiied-^ and 
whether they have not a fuller Account of the 
P?'ocee dings of the Voyage from the Papers 
wrote by me, under Captain Smith'j Direc^ 
tions, than they have had by the Papers of 
any other Perfon, and whether they have 
found any Reajon to ^eflion their Veracity* 

Veritas eft, et Praevalebit, 

£: R .V O r £: .^ ^' 



Q> FEROl*. 




of the -Z, ^^ 


between Scotland &CapeFarewel 

:-p " ^^ ,^^ 

A N 


O F A 

VOTAGE, &c. 

^^4#fflHE Ship California^ Capt. Francis May 26, 
Smith Commander, failed from the ' 74-- 
Hope on the Expedition, for the 
Difcovery of a North- Y/efb Paf-- 
fage, on Sunday Morning the 26rh 
of May 1746, her Confort, the Dobbs, having 
failed the Evening before. Both Ships met a- 
gain in Hofely-Bay, on Monday Afternoon, and 27. 
there joined the Convoy. 

The Convoy and Fleet, in which were four 
Ships belonging to the Hudfon''s-Bay Company, 23. 
failed early on Tuefday Morning, arriving in 'Tar- 
mouth Roads that Evening-, where the California 
unrigging one of her Mails was not ready to fol- 
B low 

2 AVoYAGE for the 

^l^Y 2g. ]o^ (3,^ JVcdmfday Ahcn-\oox\^ when not only the 
Convoy and Fleet but alio the Bohhs got under 
Way •, the Wind changing, they returned •, con- 
s' -'t- tinuing in the Roads until Friday after. On 
June 2d. Sunday Night were at an Anchor off Tmmouib^ 
whither the Hudfon' s-Bay Ships had hurried to 
arrive before the reft of the Fleet, that they 
might have Time to procure a Pilot for the 
Convoy, for the Northward, the Convoy not 
intending to ftop with the reft of the Fleet, had 
they Bot been becalmed. 

4^^- June the 4th in the Morning, the Convoy 

then off St. AbFs Head (after feeing fome Pro- 
vifion Ships into Edinburgh Firth) fpread an ex- 
traordinary Sail, leaving the California by four in 
the Afternoon (then in Sight of Peterhead) two 
Leagues behind her, and the Dobbs one ; and at 
two the next Morning the California was within 

5th. two Miles of the Fleet, v/hen, they fpreading the 

Sail which they had fhortened on account of the 
Night, went away again, the Dobbs with them ; 
at eight in the Morning they were a long Way a 
Head, fteering as though they intended to go 
clear of the Iflands, and direclly through the Firth 
between Shetland and the OrkneySy which, as the 
Wind was. Captain Smith thought impratSlicable, 
therefore determined not to follow ; and as the 
Weather was bad, and hkely to be worfe, con- 
cluded to gain Cairjlon Harbour in the Orkneys, a 
Place appointed for the Dobbs and California to 
touch at, and if feparated, for their firft Rende- 
vous. The 

Di/covery of a North-Weji PdJJhge. 

The hazy and rainy Weather with hard Squalls J""^* 
of Wind made it fome Time before the I^and, 
which afterward proved the MuUhead, could be 
diftinguiflied. At three paiTed Cofpvpa within 
half a ^ *ile. Before four were by Rojjnefs Point, 
and into Ham Sound -, where on firing a Swivel 
three People came Aboard, two of them offer- 
ing their Service as Pilots for Cairjion Harbour, 
which almoft every one in that Part is (qualified 
for i which Fact if not known by a Commander, 
their odd Appearance may be an Cbjedtion to his 
imployingthem.. One of them Haid Aboard, the 
-Other two went to a Ship coming in, which as we 
afterwards learned was bound for Antegoa^ and 
had kept Company with the Convoy from Tar- 
mouthy but now being left, would not have dared 
to come in with the Land, had fhe not feen the 
California enter before her. At eight in the 
Evening we anchored in Cairjion Harbour, in 
which was the Shirk Sloop of War, Captain Mid- 
dleton, whom we faluted, and our Salute was 

At Night we had extreme bad Weather, but 
the Convoy and the other Ships were fccure in 
Kirkwall Bay : The Convoy having in the Af- 
ternoon applied to Captain Moor in the Do^h, 
to know where they v/ere, and whether it would 
not be beft to go for a Harbour : Captain Moor 
fpoke to the Captains of the Hudfon-Bay Ships, 
who confented, and one of them led away for Ham 
•" 2 Sound J 

4 AVoYACE for the 

J""^- Sound ; which the Pilot of the Man of War, whom 
the Hudfon''s,-Bay Men had procured at 'Tinmouth, 
knew nothing of-, the Pilot knew only to carry 
the Man of War the Courfe, the Htidjon-Bay Ships 
were appointed by their Inftruftions to fleer, be- 
tween Shetland and the Orkneys. About ten the 

6-h. next Morning they came into the Flarbour, where 

they as little expefted to fee us as we for to be 
rejoined by them, they thought that we were loft •, 
if not loft, that we had got into ibme Port in the 
North of Scotland. 

1 2th. JJponT'hur/day Junetht 12th, the Vvind com- 

ing fair, we left Cairfton Harbour, our former 
Convoy being exchanged for Captain Middleton 
in the Shirk. We were in all eight Sail, exclufive 
of the Convoy, the four HudfGn''s-Bay Ships, one 
for Antegoa., another for Bofion., the Dobhs 
and the California. Were becalmed that Afternoon 
and fo in the Evening, but with a. great Swell, 

»3'^^- until about two in the Morning of the 13th-, fine 
pleafant Weather ', at two a light Wind fprung up 
atS. W. which afterwards proved a frefti Gale, 
thenS, W. by W. with Milling-, //ej/^f^^i appea- 
ring hke an Ifland, at eight bearing S. E. by E. f E. 
diftant about ten Leagues, In the Evening the 
Vvind moderated and the pleafant Weather re- 
turned -, little Wind and fine Weather continuing 

1 ^ih. all that Night and the next Day •, when about two 
in the Afternoon we fa w the Ifland ofEaft5^rr<^ 
S. W. \ W. diftant four or five Leagues ; the 
Eaftermoft Part formed like a Haycock, the reft 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Fcfjage. $ 

like a Boar's Back : Near two Leagues beyond lies J'l"^. 
another rocky Ifland, the Ifland of Weft Barray 
which is low to the Eaftward and rifes in a high 
Point to the Weftward. The EaiiBarra is inha- 
bited by feven Famihes and CiRomiJJj Prieft ; their 
only Subfiftance is what that fmall IQand pro- 
duces, or what they can procure by Fifhing. 

There was no Alteration of Weather to the ^5- • 
Morning of the 15th, only cloudy at Times •, in 
the Afternoon hazy at Times with Mifiing'i little 
Wind which frefhened towards Midnight, when 
it was hazy with Milling •, at four the next i6th. 
Morning clear of Haze, but blows hard and in 
Squalls; at eight lefs Wind with Rain, at ten 
the W^ind again increafes, blowing hard alfo in 
Squalls with MiQing, and a grown •, Sea which 
Weather continued, and the Convoy, at four 
that Afternoon, firing three Guns (which were 
anfwered with fivej left us ; having behaved in a 
Manner as muft have given Satisfaftion to the 
whole Fleet. 

The Convoy having now^ left us, we foon ex- 
pefted to feparate •, the Antegoa and Bofvon Men 
could not long continue that Courfe, and, tho' 
the Hudfon^s- Bay Ships were for Refolution as well 
as we, yet we did not imagine they would keep _ , 
with us •, and on the 1 7th in the Evening, we al- 
tering our Courfe, they kept theirs, and were in 
the Night fo intirely feparated as not afterwards 
to fee each other for that Year. 


6 AVoYAGE Jor the 

June. Ti^g Evening of the 17th was fair moderate 

Weather, with the Sea down, but about Mid- 
night the Wind S. frefhened with fmali Rain -, at 
i8th. fjx blows hard, fqually with fmall Rain •, at twelve 
the Wind came round to E. and remain' d fo all 
the Afternoon with Showers of Rain to eight, 
when the Jjohbs People, it being the firft Evening 
that we were left to ourfelves, gave us three 
Cheers, which v/cre as heartily anfwered. 

iqth June the 19th * in the Morning, had fairer 

Weather, though a frefhWind, in the Afternoon 
fuch Weather as on the i8th, but with this Addi- 
tion, that the Squalls of Wind and Rain brought 
a Chill with them, which continued no longer 

20th. than the Squalls-, but on the '^ 20th and '^ 21ft, 
to early of the Morning of the 2 2d the Chill 
continued, and on the Morning of the 2 2d it was 
Cold, than changed to temperate Weather ; which 
Chill was probably not only owing to the Wind 
being between the N. and the E. butalfo to Ice- 
la d; which we v/ere well to the Southward of, the 
firft of thefe Days, and which we were running the 
L ngth of with a N. W. Courfe, the 20th and 
2ifti and the Cold on the Morning of the 
2 2d may be attributed to our receiving the 
Wind at that Time, it being then N. E. over a 
larger Track of that Ifland, and from the Bays to 
the Northward of fuch Ifland (which Bays 


> 19 h ya;7f, Long, zi'^, 57'^ W. Laf. ^9'^, iff, N. ^ 20th 
"June, Long. :i;°, 1 ^^ , VV. Lat. 58", 19'/, N. ^ 2ift Jiou^ 
Long. 290, 4.8", W. Lat. 58^, 15', N. d 22d J jw^-j-Lciig, 
33^' i2»., W. Lat. 58^ 20", N. 


2 2d 

Difcovery 6fa North-Weji Pajfage. Y 

are filled with Ice the greater Part of the Year J'^'^e* 
than what we had received the Wind any of the 
preceding Days •, and what feems to confirm the 
Obfervation is, that the Alteration of Weather 
was not attended with a Change of Wind. 

The Change of Wind was on the Morning 23d. 
of he 23d to N. W. and continuing to vary be- 
tween that and the W. S. W. grew at Noon fo 
hazy, when we were in Long. 35. 20. Lat. 58. 11. 
continuing until five, that we could fcarce fee 
our Confort, though clofe a Head, and colder 
than it had been any Day before, and fuch Cold, 
much increafed by a hard Gale, at W. N. W. 
with Squalls at N. W. which fprung up atNight, 
lafting until the Noon of the 24th ; the Cold equal 24th. 
to fliarp frofty Weather, in England, continued, 
beyond the Gale and until there was a Change 
of Wind at Midnight, to N. E. 

This was looked on as very extraordinary 
Weather, and was fuppofed to be occafioned 
either by our being near Ice, or that the Spring 
this Year w^as late in thofe Parts, fo that little of 
the Snow being dilTolved, together with the great 
Quantity of floating Ice on the S. W. Coaft of 
Greenland, 3.nd off Farewell, befides that Wall of 
Ice "which lies the whole Year, from the Eaftward 
of Farewell, round to the W^eftward: Might 
well caufe fuch an EfFeft. 

The Morning of the 25th v/as hazy, clear at 25th. 
Noon, hazy again at three, and at fix in the 


S AVoYAGE Jhr the 

June. Evening we had an extreme white Fog, which was 
more difagreeable Wei'.ther than any we had ex- 
perienced before, not on the Account of the 
Cold (though chiller than any other Part of the 
Day) but as the Fog wetted very much and alfo 
llunck. The Fog rofe but a fmall Way above the 
Horizon, the Sun appearing white through it, and 
in the Hemifpherc above a blew clear Sky. The 
Fog cleared about eight. 

26th. The 26th was cloudy with fome Sun-Shine un- 

til Noon 5 at Noon clear with Sun-Shine, but in 
the Afternoon a Fog, fuch as had been the Evening 
before,' continuing until fix •, then clear pleafanC 
AVeather. Cantain Moor, about eiqht running- 
alongfide, hoifted his Enfign as a Signal of fome- 
thing difcovered, which, on going to the Mali- 
head, proved to be Ice, making like Rocks with 
high Pinnacles upon them, not lefs in Circum- 
ference than 10 Miles, 6 or 7 Leagues diitant 
N. W. by N. our Courfe N. W. by W. This 
Ice was by twelve difcerned from the Deck, and 
at two there appeared fomething like a high Cape 
or Point of Land -, but our View was further in- 
terrupted by the Weather changing to clofe and 

27th. The Morning of the 2 7th continued hazy with 

Mining, at fix it fell to little Wind at E. with a 
fmall Swell, the Air chill and damp. Soon after 
eight, fuddenly cold and a thick Fog, which 
Circumftances confirmed to Captain Smiib, that 


t)ifcovery of a North-Weft PajJ'age. 9 

Ice was near, and we foon perceived a large Piece June. 
a Head of the Dobbs ; whofe People, on being 
hailed, flopped the Ship's Way, and the Piece 
fwam clear, of a fcraggy Form -, the Colour 
White tinged v/ith Azure, the Azure the more 
prevalent : At eleven faw more Ice, the Fog ftill 
continuing', about half an Hour after eleven 
Pieces of Ice again, which became more fre- 
quent, large Pieces firflr , then large and fmall 
Pieces fwimming thick and near together, many of 
the large Pieces ten Yards over and thirty round : 
The fmall Pieces moftly white^ but the large 
azure with an upper Coat or Rind of White^ 
the Sea calm and perfedly fmooch, though the 
Wind was frefhened j the Water making a Roar- 
ing through Cavities wrought by it in the large 
Pieces -, and a rufhing Noife as it palTes over, or 
afide of the fmall and low Pieces, dipping, as 
they fwim, from their being impelled by tht: 
Wind, or from their Motion not being propor- 
tionably fail with that of the Current. 

Upon Captain Moor^s, Defire, we altered our 
Courfe i foon after failing in with s\ hat is termed 
heavy Ice, con filling of many large and high 
Pieces, fome equal in Heighth to the Ship's Deck, 
and fome few higher. Being furrounded by Ice 
and pairing in narrow Streights, between thefe 
Hills of White and Azure, the Roar and Rufb of 
the Sea heard on all Parts, the Fog confining our 
View to a very narrow Diftance, and prefenting 
continually frefh Objecls, although it could not 
C but 

JO A Voyage for the 

but raife our Attention from the Novelty of die 
Scene, yet it afforded no Occafion to raife our 
Fears, there being no real Danger. The Lieute- 
nant ahead comes to, or directs theManat the H elm 
how to fteer, and to avoid any Piece of Ice, as it is 
coming ahead \ and if the Ship cannot go clear, but 
muft engage with fuch Piece, then by a proper 
Management of the Fore and Main-topfails which 
only are out, her Motion is fo flopped that llie 
may go gently up to it, and the Piece is pufhed 
off with afhen Poles of 1 8 Feet long, (hod with 
Iron, which from their Ufe are called Ice-Poles. 

When the Ice would permit, a Signal was made 
fO Captain Moor by firing of Guns (for the Fog 
ftill continued) for Tacking, which he anfwered ; 
and in about half an Hour fit clearing up) we 
faw him half aLeague aftern and ftaid for him un- 
til he came up. At four tacked, fell in again with 
more loofe Iflands of Ice ; at half an Hour after 
four, ftood S. by VV. fuppofing thereby to get 
* a clear Sea •, fhattered Ice until fix, and at {^vnvi 
we were in a clear Sea. To-night, and alfo the 
Evening before, we faw Birds which were of the 
Size of a wild Duck, either fingle, two or three 
together, or in large Flocks, fwimming on the 
Water, and which, when fired at, would ju ft flvim 
above the Surface, and fettle within a few Feet 
from the Place they rofe at: They are of a light 
Brown from the upper Part of their Beak, under 
rheir Eyes, and over the Head, down the hinder 
Part of their Neck and Wings, excepting the 


Difcovery of a North-Weft P aft age: 1 1 

large Feathers which are black, and the upper Part J^*^^- 
of their Tails : The Bread and Body are white •, 
and under their Throat to the lower Part of the 
Beak, they are by fome filled Cape Birds, by others 
Sea-fweepers, and are faid to be feen no where 
but within a hundred Leagues of Cape Fareivell. 

The Night of the 27th was clofe and hazy, fo 27th. 
on the Morning of the 28th with MiQing. Wind 28th. 
at E. met with no more Ice •, and fuppofed our- 
felves to the Weftward of Cape Fareivell in Long. 
49°. is^^' ^"tl by Obfervation in Lat. 58". 
12. N. upon going to the Maft-Head at Sunfet, 
and feeing no Land, after ten altered our Courfe 
more Northerly, Steering N. W. 

Cape Farewell is the South- weftermoft Point 
of Greenland^ difcoverable, according to the 
Dutch Accounts, fix or eight Dutch Miles or 
jE';/^///?? Leagues from the Land, by them called 
Staaten Hoek or States Point, or Promontory, 
they giving the Name of Vaarivell (which anfwers 
in the Dutch to Farewell) to a Cape that lies to the 
Weftward of Gr^^;///77;^/, in Lat. 61. and remark- 
able by having a Bank off it, on which the Sound- 
ings are forty Fathoms-, the fame Cape which 
Monck {o named in the Year 1 6 1 9, when he took 
his Departure from xh^nc^'iOT America. This Staa- 
ten Hoek of the Dutch, and which all Englift Navi- 
gators know by the Name of Farewell, was tirft 
difcovered by Capt. Davis in the Year 1585 (who 
wajs the firft Difcoverer to the Southward and 
C 2 Weftward 

12 AVoYAGE jor the 

Weflvvard of Greenland) and named by him 
Farewell^ from not being able to come within 
two Leagues of the Land, as the Sea for thatDi- 
ftance from the Shore was full of Ice, The Land 
was very high and ragged, full of great Moun- 
tains all covered with Snow •, for fifty or fixty 
Leagues •, it tends towards the Weft, and then 
lies diredlly North •, no Wood, Grafs, or Earth 
to be feen. In a following Voyage made in the 
Year 1586, the Ice lay then in fome Places 
twenty, fome fifty Leagues off, fo that he was 
forced to get into 57 Degrees to double fuch Ice, 
and get into a free Sea. Mr. Hall afterwards named 
the fame Cape, Cape Chrifiian^ after the King of 
'Denmark, in whofe Service he then was ; giving 
aDefcription fimilar to that given by Capt.D^^7J, 
'viz. that it is a very high ragged Land, ^c. and 
the Ice lay far from the Shore, being thick to- 
wards the Land, with great Iflands of Ice, fo that 
it was wonderful : And in another Voyage, which 
^as in the Year 1606, Mr. Hall fell in upon his 
Return Home with Land to the Weft ward of 
Farewelly but fuppofing by his Obfervation that 
the Ship was to the Southv/ard of the Latitude of 
fuchCape(a Miftake which, confidering theThick- 
nefs of the Air and the Inftruments made ufe of 
at that Time, might eafily happen) and not being 
able to judge by the Shore, as it was thick with 
Ice, whether the Land he then faw was Part of 
the Main or not: He fo relied on his Obfervation 
as to conclude that it was not Part of the Main but 
muft be an Ifland diftinft from it, and to the South- 

Difcovery of a North-Wejl Fajjage, 13 

ward of Cape Farewell^ and therefore called the Ji^ne. 
Land he fo faw Frofi-IJland, after the Name of his 
Ship. All other Navigators agree with the Defcrip- 
tion given, defcribing it as high mountainousLand, 
theMountains like Siigar-Loafs, and thofe covered 
with Snow, Ice lying off it the whole Year. The 
Latitude of Farewell, which according to the bed 
Obfervation and fafeft to be ufed, is 59°. 45". 
and the Longitude 45^. being made, you are then 
fufficiently to the Weftward, fo that you may 
hawl more to the Northward. 

All the twenty-eighth, the Sea had appeared 
of a dirty green Colour, '^ Mr. Hall obferves, 
that in the Year 1605, Cape Chrijlian bearing N. 
E. by E. by Compafs five Leagues diftant, and 
{landing to Seaward from the aforefaid Cape, 
he came into black Water as thick as though it 
had been puddle Water, failing in the fame for 
the Space of three Hours, 

The twenty-ninth was a clear beautiful Day, zgih, 
with Sunfhine and little Wind; in the Morning 
we had a Fog Bank E. N. E. much refembling 
Land, feveral of them arofe in other Parts of 
the Horizon in the Afternoon. Thefe Banks 
will ftagger a good Judgment to difcern in 
Places where Land may be expected, whether 
they be Fog Banks or the real Land, efpecially as 
fijch Banks will often from the Sun's Reflexion. 

^- Piirchafe's?il. Lib 4 Chap. 14. 


14 AVoYAGE for the 

June. appear white in Spots, refcmbling Snow on the 
Mountains fo ufual in thde Parts. To diftin- 
guifh whether it be a Fog Bank, or Land, you 
carefully obferve whether there is any Alteration 
of the Form, or Shifting of the Outlines, which if 
there is, as it is not the Property of Land to change 
the Form, you know it to be one of thefe Banks. 

"We faw this Day, and alfo the Evening before. 
Birds which fome call Gulls, others Strikers, about 
the Size of a Gull, a Head white with a black 
Beak, fome of them had large black Spots upon the 
right Side of their Head, others not : Their Wings 
fhap'd like a Hawk's, which, as well as their Body, 
are of a whitifh grey Colour, much the Colour 
of a grey Owl in England : We faw alfo Willocks, 
Birds too well known on the Coaft of Englandy 
off Flamborough-bead, and to the Northward, to 
need any Defcription here. 

301. The pleafant Weather continued to the Noon 

of the thirtieth, then hazy Weather at three in the 
Afternnoon, a brisk Wind with Milling •, in the 
Evening a Fog, which wetted, caufing Damp, 
cold and raw Weather-, the Fog lafted until four on 

July 1 ft. the Morning of July the firft, when hazy but dry 
afterwards •, clear Weather and moift Fogs alter- 
nately fucceed until Noon, with a fenfible Diffe- 
rence, as to Cold, when the Fogs were on, and, 
when not, the Noon was cloudy but with fome 
Suniliine •, and all the Afternoon hazy with fmall 
Rain, which was much warmer than the Fogs » 


'"Difcovery of a North-Weji Pajfage. 15 

the Wind alfo increafed •, in the Evening to- July- 
wards eight was lefs, and the Sea grew down, 
when the Rain ceafed, with dearer V/ eather, tho* 
the Weather foon changed again •, fmall Rain until 
twelve,and onjuly the lecond ImallRain until three, 2d. 
Wind moderated, cloudy until eight ; then a thick 
Fog and almoft a Calm •, imall Rain at twelve, 
at one Rain over but cloudy ■, the Wind Iprings 
up at two, afterwards blowing frefb, and from 
five to eight fmall Rain, the Gale continuing witK 
Milling until next Morning, with the Change of 
Wind •, which was at Noon, to N. M. W. from 
the S. by E. it was colder than it had been any 
Day before, and the Sea, which had continued 
from the twenty-eighth of a dirty green Colour, 
now appeared of a very deep Blue •, the next 
Morning there were Squalls of Rain, and about ^d, 
feven, the Wind moderating, it grew foggy. The 
Fog foon gone but frequentMifts between that and 
twelve i from twelve to fix cloudy, but the Sun 
breaking out at Times -, from fix to eight a Fog, 
then cloudy, and a Calm at Midnight ; Wind to 
S. W. clear Weather, the Morning of July the 4th. 
fourth until five ; from five to eight MiQing, 
and from eight to eleven hazy with fmall Rain, 
which about eleven turned out into a regular 
falling Shower, the only one we have had fince 
the eighteenth of Ju/^e ; it grew warmer after the 
Shower and a Calm followed •, hazy in the fore 
Part of the Afternoon, afterwards cloudy with 
fome Rain at two -, and at fix regular Sho.vers. 
The Wind came about to N. by E. and at eight 


i6 AVoVaCe for the 

July, to W. and at ten to N. W. moderate but caufing 
it to be colder •, about eight was a Fog, fo again 
from ten to twelve^ and from twelve to two. 
July the fifths a Fog which wetted much •, until 
four hazy with Miding •, and until fix foggy, 
when the Wind changed to W. S. W. Saw fe- 
veral large IQands of Ice, the Morning being 
clear until ten j with an extraordinary bright 
Whitenefs in fome Parts of the Sky •, the like we 
alfo faw on the Evening before between nine and 
ten j an Indication of Ice beneath. At ten hazy 
with Mifling *, at twelve cloudy with fome Sun- 
fliirie, faw more Ice •, before one, clear pleafant 
Weather, and much warmer •, (fpeaking) with 
Refpeft to the extraordinary cold Weather^ 
which we had at Times, efptcially when foggy 
than at any Time we had had it fmce our leaving 
Farewell. From which PlUce the further we ad- 
vanced, we had been ftill more fenfible of the 
Increafe of the Cold. 

The Afternoon continuing clear and plcafant, 
faw more IQands of Ice, one equal in Size and much 
refembling a large Gothick Church, appearing 
white by reafon of the Brightnefs of the Afternoon i 
but, as the Sun declined, it appeared of a bluifli 
Caft ; fuch Weather as was in the Afternoon conti- 
6th. nued all that Night, excepting Rain about ten, 
calm Weather until twelve, and the next Morn- 
ing Rain at four and five o' Clock with light 
Breezes afterwards-, heard frequently a great 
Rulh and Roar in the Water from the Pieces of 


Difcovery of a North-JVeJi PaJJ'age. \j 

Ice which broke off from an Ifland of very large J"Iy- 
Dimenfions near to us •, feveral other large Iflands 
in Sight •, which feemed to be carried in two feveral 
Currents, the one from N. W. the other from 
N. N. W. and to unite in a Current we met with 
the Afternoon.before, runnings. S. E.iE. 

A large Ifland of Ice overfet, or eat through 
by the Water, the upper Part fell in Sight of 
Mr. Hudfctiy by which he learned not to go near 
the large Iflands with his Ship. Gatonhe in 
his Account of Mr. HaWs Voyag, fays, they 
met with many Iflands of Ice, which were 
very high like Mountains, fome of them they 
judged to be thirty Yards from the Water. 
* Baffyne in his Account of Mr. Bylot\ Expe- 
dition fays, " we failed by many great iflands of 
" Ice, fome of which were above two hundred 
" Feet high above Water (as I proved by one 
" fhortly after) which I found to be two hun- 
" dred and forty Feet high ; and, if the Report 
" of fome Men be true, who affirm, that there 
" is but one feventh Part of the Ice above Water, 
" then the Length of that Piece of Ice which I 
'*^ obferved was one hundred and forty Fathoms, 
*' or one thoufand fix hundred and eighty Feet, 
" from the Top to the Bottom : This Propor- 
*' tion I know doth hold in much Ice, but whe- 
" ther it do fo in all I know not. However 
*' incredible this may appear, it mull be ad- 

^ PurchaJt'iPil. Lib. 4. Chap. 18. 

D mitted 

i8 AVoYAGE for the 

J"'y- mitted by all who have feen this mountainous Ice, 
that there are Iflands furprifingly large-, and, if 
we confider the Size thefe Iflands are of, when 
they arrive on the Banks of Newfoundland^ after 
receiving a great Diminution both from the Air 
and the Wa(h of the Sea in a Pafiage of fo many 
Leagues, it will greatly help our Belief as to 
the prodigious Size which fome of thefe Iflands. 
are of at their firfl: being afloat, or when they 
are met with in thefe Parts. 

Thefe Iflands are eafily avoided, as they 
move but flowly •, their Height and Colour 
make them very diflinguiflieable, even in the 
dark Nights •, they are not fpread in the Sea like 
fmall Iflands, but often fingle without any other 
Ifland near them for Leagues, and if there are 
feveral Iflands in Sight at a Time, they are always 
at a Difl:ance from each other. 

The Noon of the fixth was foggy, afterwards 
hazy, theWindN. and, as we paflTed near feveral 
large Iflands of Ice, they caufed a fenfible Chil- 
nefs i at flx cloudy, the Wind N. N. W. and 
the Weather colder ; at nine a Fog, and at half an 
Hour after eleven a fmall Fall of Snow \ the Morn- 
ing of the feventh was hazy until two, foggy at 
four, afterwards pleafant clear Sunfliiny Wea- 
ther, though very cold , fo the whole Day -, and 
that Evening we looked out for Cape Refolution. 

Refolution was difcovered by Captain Davis 
the thirty-firfl: oijuly^ 1587, and the Eafl: End 



Difcovery of a North-Wejl PaJ'age. 1 9 

thereof named Cape JVarwick^ or fFarwick's 
Foreland, in Honour of that noble Family who 
had fo greatly contributed to his Undertakings, 
as well as thole of Sir Martin Forbijher ; and the 
next Day, falling in with the Southermoft Cape 
or Point of the Streights named it Cape Chidley.'^ 
JVarwick's Foreland was again feen by Captain 
George Waymouth in 1602 •, the Headland role 
like an IQand, and, when they came near the 
Foreland, they faw four fmall Iflands to North- 
ward, and three fmall Iflands to Southward of 
faid Foreland. The Foreland was high Land, all 
the Tops of the Hills covered with Snow the 
28th of Jime\ the three fmall Iflands to the 
Southward were alfo white, that they could not 
difcern them from Iflands of Ice ; alfo there was 
a great Store of drift Ice, on the Side of the 
Foreland^ but the Sea was altogether void of Ice-, 
the Land did lie N. by E. andS. by W. fix Leagues 
in Length. And the twenty-ninth at fix o' Clock 
in the Morning, they were within three Leagues 
of the Foreland^ then the Wind came up at 
N. E. by E. a good flifFGale with Fog-, and 
they were forced to ftand to the Southward, be- 
caufe they could not weather the Land to the 
Northward ^ and, as they flood Southward along 
by Warwick^ Foreland^ they could difcern no 
otherwife but that it was an Ifland, which, fays 
Captain IVaymouth, '' if it fall out to be fo, then 
*' Lumly' s Inlet (an Opening to the Northward of 

> Pwihapi PJgrim'y Lib. 4. Ci.ap. iS. 

D 2 " Refolutiott) 


16 AVoYAGE jor the 

July. " Refoktion) and the next Southerly Inlet (by 
*' which he means the Entrance httweGnRe/oluiion 
" and Cape Cbidley) where the greatCurrent fetteth 
*' totheWeft, muftofneceffity be one Sea, which 
" will be the greateft Hope of the Paffage that 
*' Way". From what hath preceded, we may con- 
clude, that thofe two, Davis and IVaymouth, were 
the Luminaries that lighted Hudfon into his 
Streights, who probably gave the Name of i?f- 
folution -, for Sir 'Thomas Button^ the next after 
him, makes ufe of fuch Name,' and, as a 
Name given by fome prior Adventurer, it is now 
\^ appropriated to both the great and lefler Ifies, 
they being ftiled the Ifles of Refolution, uir^ the 
Name of IFarwick is almoft loft in that of Cape 
Refolution^ as they both import the fame. Cape 
Warwick is rather to the N. E. than, as Captain 
Davis fays, to the E. according to Bfffyne''s 
Defcription, who, anchoring in a good Harbour 
on the Weft Side of Refolution, had an Oppor- 
tunity to defcribe it with more Exadnefs. An 
indifferent high Land to N. having one Hill or 
Summit to the N. E. but to the S. it falleth 
away very low. 

Not feeing Refokition in the Evening, we were 
jth, in Expeftaticn of making it early the next Morn- 
ning -, at twelve hazy, at two a thick Fog, when 
we met with large Riplings and the Sea fetting 
twenty Ways, a Confirmation of our being within 
two or three Leagues of the Streights ; therefore 
brought too, as did Capt2.mMoor, to wait for 


Bifcovery of a North-Weft Paffage. % I 

clearer Weather to go in with : Our Ropes were July* 
now froze with Ice hanging on them, which was 
the firft Time •, the Weather not only cold, but 
difagreeably damp from the great Wetting of the 
Fog. Saw a Flight of wild Geefe and fome Sea 
Pidgeons •, few Iflands of Ice pafled us in the 
Night, there was one large Ifland in Sight with 
fomething looming near, which we could not 
make a ri ghc Difcernment of it, but fuppofed it 
a Sail. 

At five, all Hands were called, the Fog clear- 
ing fufficiently to Ihe'w the fuppofed Sail to be a 
Parcel of Hummocks and fmall rounding Rocks, 
of a brown and yellowifh flakey Stone, with fome 
Spits or Inlets among the Rocks, which were full 
of Ice i the Fog hanging ftill on the high Land 
within, fo that we were prevented from a Sight of 
that. There was little Snow, fome in Spots or 
Ri.-'.ges on the Side of the Hummocks. And upon 
this Shore which was the main Ifland of Refolu- 
tion (it being ftark calm with a flrong Swell \) 
the Swell fat us very fall with little Profpedh of 
clearing it, though our Boats were hoifted out 
to tow, and all other Endeavours ufed to pre- 
vent i with the Addition to our Misfortune of 
the Dohbs being feemingly nearer, fo in greater 
Danger than ourfelves : Had both Ships went 
Afliore, the moft the People might have 
expeded was to fave their Lives, and to little 
Purpofe, as they would have been almoft 
under an abfolute Certainty never to be taken off, 


22 A V o y A GE for the 

July. in want of all Subfillance, nothing there to ereft a 
Tent with, no Place of Shelter to retire to, but mufb 
remain expofed to the open Air, in fo uncertain 
and fevere a Climate. To be affured of being 
without Subfi fiance and Refuge is not only the 
Cafe upon any Accident (fuch as the Ship's going 
Alhore, or ftriking upon the Rocks) happening 
at Resolutions but it will be the fame, if fuch Ac- 
cident happen in any Part o^Hudfon^s, Streights, 
or in the Bay to the Northward : In which refpeft 
thefe Voyages are more dangerous than any other 
that are undertaken. 

Coming nearer the Land, we found a Tide 
which, affifted by a Breeze of Wind, fet us off 
equally as fail: from the Shore, as v/e had been 
before fet on by the Calm and the Swell, and 
entered Hudfon's Streights about ten o' Clock, 
meeting only with fmall ftraggling Ice, though 
the Entrance, or between Refolution and the South 
Main, is often fiU'd from Side to Side. The 
Streights to the Weflward of the Entrance are 
much broader than the Entrance, and, as the Ice 
is fet forceably by the Currents from the broader 
Part into the narrow, by confequence it jams 
and fills fuch Narrow ; and this at all fuch Times 
as large Bodies of Ice come down : The Currents 
alfo as they come out of the Streights, and the ebb 
Tides, from being ftreightened by the narrownefs 
of the Entrance, run the more rapidly, and 
this Rapidity of the Tide and Currents, Davis 
and JVajmcuth, the firft Difcovejers took for a 


Bifcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. 23 

certain Sign of another Ocean near, and by reafon July. 
of their Rapidity called this Paffage a Gulf. 

The Weather was hazy until twelve, then 
fomewhat clearer, and we faw the high Land of 
Refoiution, E. S. E. fhewing like a dark thick 
Cloud ', in the Afternoon pleafant Weather with 
fome Sun-fliine, met with fome failing Ice, fo 
termed becaufe a Ship can fail clearly between the 
Pieces of Ice without altering her Courfe •, and 
faw the Loomings of the Land of both Shores, 
the Land fhewing very high. The next Morn- gth. 
ing met with more Ice, when there was a regu- 
lar Rain that lafted fome Hours, and tack'd for 
a large Body of Ice feen ahead, extending itfclf 
for Miles, and appearing juft above the Surface 
of the Water like a white Cruft or Rind ; law 
more Ice alfo in other Parts of the Day : This 
Day very cold, and in the Evening having a 
poppling Sea, were aflured that we fhould be for 
a Time free from. Ice, as the Water amongft, or 
near Ice, is at all T imies fmooth -, faw alfo the 
Land of both Shores, had a Fog about fix, which 
did not continue, and a Fog- Bank North. 

The next Morning, July the tenth, faw j^.j,^ 
LandN. E. clear Sun-fhiny Weather, but cold 
and at twelve the Land from the N. W. to the 
S. E by S. the Land S. E. by S. a low Point, 
and the Northermoft Land high, with Spots of 
Snow liei'jg on it ; our Diftance from fuch Land 
was fix Leagues. Captain Moor hoifted his En- 


24 AVoYAGE for the 

July- fign and fired feveral Guns as a Signal for Trade, 
the Wind being frefli and contrary. 

This Land feemingly of a brown flakey Stone, 
is very high but of a gradual Afcent, with the 
Top level, and is called I'erra Nivea^ or Snow 
Land; appears as Part of the Main, but fup- 
pofed an Ifland by Captain Fox and fome others. 
Having made little Way in the Night, with our 
Wind fmall and contrary, which continued, to the 
Morning, very pleafant Weather, when Captain 
Moor again repeated the Signal for Trade. In 
the Afternoon it fell ftark calm -, about two of 
the Clock we heard a Halloing from Shorewards, 
and with a Glafs faw three Canoes coming; 
afterwards faw more Canoes, to the Amount 
of twenty, thofe in the hindermoft Canoes feem- 
- ing to labour extremely hard ; they Halloed at 
Times, as they approached, which was anfwered 
from the Ships ; when nearer, they called out 
Chima \ this alfo is repeated by our People, and 
three Canoes which were forwarder than the reft 
made a Halt in a Line at about the Diftance of 
a Mufket-Shot; the Perfon in the middle Canoe, 
Elder than either of thofe in the other two, takes 
his Paddle with both Hands and holds it over his 
Forehead parallel to the Horizon, crying Chima, 
and lifting himfelf feveral Times from his Seat, 
the Perfon in theCanoe on the Right-hand fhewed 
a Piece of Whalebone, repeating Chima, and 
moved hisLeft-hand circularly upon his leftBreaft; 
Chima was anfwered from the Ship, and they ap- 


hifcovery of a North-Weji Pajjage, 2$ 

proach nearer, foon after the reft of the Canoes J"'y- 
came up. 

The People are of a brown Complexion, broad- 
Faced, with black Eye-brows, and Hair which is 
very thick, cut regulary round the Forehead* 
and reaching to their Shoulders •, fome had ^ 
it tied in Knots of each fide their Temples, fe- 
Veral of the Elder ones had Whifkers, and one 
a Ihort Beard : Their Eyes are fmall and brown* 
Nofe an<1 Lips largej have very good Teeth, 
are tall, lufty rather than fat, ftreight-limb'd, 
their Hands and Feet fmall j cloathed all over, 
excepting Hands andFacej their Cloathing is Seal 
Skin, fome few have Deer-Skin ; they wear both 
the Seal and Deer-Skin with the Hair on, and 
dreffed fo as to be foft and pliable. They have a 
fhort Frock which reaches below their Hips, with 
Flaps that hang down about eight Inches before 
and behind, Sleeves that come to the Wrifts, and 
a Hood or Capuchin which is of one Piece with the 
Frock, to put over the Head •, the Frock is with- 
out any Slit or Opening upon the Breaft or behind -, 
there is a Border round the Face Part of the Ca- 
puchin ; there is alfo a Border at the Bottom of the 
Frock and at the Hands, which Borders are of 
Pieces of the Skin of a lighter Colour than the reft 
of the Frock', the Frock alfo is made of Pieces^ 
and in the putting them together they have Re- 
gard to the different Colours, fetting them off to 
the beft Ad vantage, but when made up they appear 

as one Piece. They have open-kneed Breeches of 
E the 

26 A V OY AGE for the 

J^')- the fame Materials as the Frock, made with 2 
broad Waiftband, and Borders round the Knees^ 
fewing in the Seams by which the Borders are 
joined, fhort black Hairs doubled, making a 
black Streak •, and fometimes two of thefe 
Streaks at about an Inch from each other -, they 
alfo do the fame in fewing on the Borders of 
the Frock; the Breeches have no Slit either 
before or behind, and there are Strings to the 
Waiftband which draw it clofe round the Waift : 
They have Boots which reach the Knees, of Seal 
or Deer-Skin, the upper Part, but the Feet and 
Soals of Sea Horfe Hide. They have Sandals of 
Sealskin, or Sea-Horfe Hide; that hath had the 
Hair taken off and afterwards been dreffed in Oil. 
Their Shoes alfo are made of Seal-Skin but with 
the Hair on ; all wear Boots, Sandals and Shoes 
without Heels, and the Shoes as well as the 
Boots and Sandals are fewed together (having 
Strength and Neatnefs) with the Sinews of Deer 
dried, and they few their Cloaths with the 
fame; they put at Times Skins of Willocks or 
Partridges as a Sock within their Boots or Shoes, 
with the Feathers inward or next their Foot: 
Their Gloves are made of oiled Skin, with no 
Finger-Pieces, only a Thumb ; fome with high 
Tops reaching almofl- to the Elbow, others with- 
out Tops not reaching the Wrift, thefe trimmed 
with a Slip of Fox, or fome other Skin. They 
have alfo a Piece of Cloathing which is made of 
Bladders, that arefuftcut out and fhaped, then 
every Piece joined to the other with a neat double 

Seam ; 

Difcovery of a North-Weji Pajage, 27 

Seam, there is no Hood or Capuchin nor noJ'^'y- 
Opening on the Bread or behind, fo muft be put 
on over the Head, being fecured from tearing 
by a Border round the Neck, there are Arms to . 
it, but reaches only to the Waift, and behind is 
a Slip of Whalebone fewed, as I imagine to tic to 
the Rim of their Canoe fo it becomes one Piece 
with the Canoe, preventing in rough Weather ail 
Water from getting in. 

Their Canoes fiiap'd fomething like a Shuttle, 
are about eighteen Feet in Length, and near 
three Feet broad in the Middle, the Prow is wider 
than the Stern, but both as a Shuttle terminate 
in narrow Points : They are made of Ribs and 
Pieces which run fore and aft to hold fuch Ribs 
together i the Ribs and Pieces are of Pine and 
knit together with Strips of Whalebone, and over 
the Whole is a Cover or Cafe of Skin which the 
Hair hath been cleared from and is well oiled, 
looking of the Colour of Parchment, and Hich 
Cafe is fewed together with ftrong Seams, leaving 
only one Opening in the Middle of the upper 
Part of the Canoe for a Perfon to get in to fir, 
and when in he fills it', their Seat is not upon a 
crofs Piece, but at the Bottom of the Canoe with 
a Skin ufually under them i when feated, two 
Parts of the Body will be in the Canoe, and a 
Hoop or Rim, of about three Inches in Height 
round the Opening they fit in. Reaches as high 
to them as the Pit of their Stomach. 

E 2 Thefe 

28 A VoY AGE Jor the 


Thefe Canoes they are dextrous in managing, 
and will paddle them at the rate of feven or eight 
Miles an Hour, looking when they paddle the 
fame way they are going : They ufe no Motion 
with their Bodies, but lean Backwards, keeping 
th«mfelves very fteady, and all they move is their 
Arms and Shoulders, holding their Paddle with 
both Hands, their Paddle being double bladed, or 
two Paddles the Gripes or Handles fewed together, 
and the Blades one at each Extreme which they 
dip alternately, firft, one on the one fide, then the 
other on the other : The Paddle is about eight 
Feet long, and tipped with Bone ; a fmall way juft 
above the Blades of both Paddles, they make two 
Knobs which not only gives a better Hold by pre- 
venting the Hands from flipping, but hath a fur- 
ther Convenience, as the Water when they lifted 
the Paddle would otherwife run to their Hands, 
Cvery unpleafant at Times in fuch a Climate as 
this,) but by thefe Knobs it is formed into Drops 
and fo moftly runs off. 

As they paddle about the Ship, they call out 
^ Shoot Cock, which implies. Whalebone, a. fmall 
Quantity of this was traded for Hatchets, Saws, 
Files, Knives, and Needles, which alfo were 
prefented to them. The People of the Ship bar- 
tered their Knives and pieces of Iron Hoop for 
the Skin-Cloaths, the Indians being willing to 
difpofe of any Thing which they can get an ex- 
change for in Iron, fo ufeful for fixing to the 


JDifcovery of a North-Wejl Paffage, 29 

Ends of their Darts ; and Harpoons and for many July., 
other Purpofei, for which otherwife they only 
ufe Bone. 

Whatfoevcr they barter for, as foon as they 
get it they lick it with their Tongue, and 
then fhout, which the other Indians join in. 
If there are feveral Canoes alongfide the Ship, 
and one lying afide the other, all the Indians 
calling out to Trade, and you want to Trade 
with the Indian in the furthermoft Canoe, the 
reft will immediately, as foon as they perceive 
it, give Way to let that Canoe come nearer. 
And as they carry moftly their Whalebone within 
fide their Canoes, and alfo the Cloaths which they 
have to difpofe of, or to put on in the room of 
thofe they may part with from their Backs (though 
they will fell all and go Home naked, if they 
can have a Market) but as to get thcfe, the In- 
dian muft quit his Seat, kneel upon the Top of 
the Canoe, and take them out by the Hole he 
fat in, which he cannot do without another Canoe 
lying alongfide to fteady his, any one of the 
Indians will readily do this Office for him. 

One of them who was offered a Barter for his 
Breeches, took another Indian and Canoe with 
him fome Diftance to fteady his Canoe while he 
got his Breeches off, which ad: of Decency was 
the more extraordinary as under their Breeches 
they wear Skins which pafs from their Hips 


30 A V o Y A GE for the 

I'^y- up between their Thighs, and are faftened be- 

There is on the Outfide of their Canoes a Con- 
trivance with a fmall Piece of Whalebone to hold 
their Harpoon, or Filhing Tackle, and near be- 
fore the Opening they fit in, have two Strings 
acrofs to tuck any thing under, and there fome- 
times fliewapiece ofWhalebone for Trade, fome 
of them had on their Canoes behind them a 
Utenfil made of a Piece of Whalebone rounded, 
about three Inches high, and eight Inches in 
Breadth, having a Crofs of Wood at the Bottom, 
one End of which flood out for a Handle, and 
on this lay Seals Flefh which they eat raw, others 
had it lying on the Canoe -, which tafte at Times, 
however difagreeable to us, is yet ufeful to them, 
for if they can eat Seal, there is fuch a Plenty of 
them in all thofe Parts, that they may depend 
upon Food be their Voyage ever fo long. 

One of the Indians had a Piece of Board formed 
as the Flap of a Jocky Cap, about four Inches 
in the broadeft Part, and eight Inches in Length 
or in that Part which he put to his Forehead, it 
being to affill his Sight upon his looking out, 
it was about an Inch thick, the Part next the 
Forehead, fo as not to cut the Forehead when 
tied on, and was paired gradually lo as to be thin 
at the outward Edge : This he put on to look 
out for three Boats of Women that were coming, 
V^ith fome Canoes, in which there were young 

Lad a. 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage» 31 

Lads. Several of the Canoes went from the July- 
Ships to meet them, and returned with them, as 
the Boats came near, the Women made a great 
Shouting and Jumping •, they are flout made, 
much as the Men, only feem more upon a Cop- 
per Complexion, their Features Softer, Hair 
better, Eyes black, fome with their Hair tied, 
fome not : Their Cloaths the fame as the Men's, 
excepting that their Hoods are much larger, 
having alio large Flaps before and behind •, in their 
Hoods or Capuchins, they put their fmall Chil- 
dren as alfo in the Tops of their Boots which fome 
of them have, being very large and reaching 
quite up to their Hips, they fett the Tops out 
with Whalebone, and the Boots are made of Sea- 
Horfe Hide oyled. 

In each of the Boats there were from about 
thirty to forty Perfons, Women, Girls, and Lads, 
there feemed one Woman about the Age of fifty 
the others moflly thirty or under, and feveral? 
Girls about twelve or fourteen, fome of the 
Women having fmall Children. They did not 
obferve that order in Trading as the Men, all 
being defirous both Women and Boys of any 
thing they faw offered for Bartering, Halloing 
and reaching out their Hands, which the Girls 
did not, but they fhouted with the reft when any 
Thing was bartered. The Women trade their 
Cloaths as the Men j They had alfo Whale- 
Fin-, and fome Fox-Skins which they fhewed 
a long Time before they came to the Ship, fuch 


3* AVovAGE for the 

July. Skins feafonably killed, would be extraordinary 
Furrs : The Boys traded fmall Arrows, Models 
of Bows and of Canoes. Strings-of Beads were 
given to the Women, one to each, which they 
were extreamely defirous of, when one expeded 
to have a String, and it was given to another, 
fhe who was difappointed, would roll her Eyes, 
a Colour would immediately rife in her Face, and 
file would eagerly lick her Lips : Whatfoever 
they got, they did as the Men, immediately licked 

The Boats they came in were in Shape neareft 
to an eccentrick Oval, whofe largeft Diameter 
was about 20 Feet, whofe Ihorteft about 5, the 
Head rather (harper than the Stern, high fided, 
and rowed with two Sculls, much fuch as our 
Filhermen ufe, fattened to the Boats Gunnell 
with a Strip of Deer-Skin, the Boat is covered 
with oylcd Skin, fuch as covers the Canoes, with 
Ribs of Pine of about the Breadth of four Fin- 
gers, at a Foot Diftance the one from the other^ 
and Rails Fore and Aft to confine the Ribs to 
which they are tied with Stripes of Whalebone, 
fo are the Pieces of Pine, which run afore and 
aft, and alfo thofe that run crofs the Bottom, 
and the Skin which covers the Boat feems to 
have no other Faflening than being fewed to the 
Rail, which is the Gunnell of the Boat. The 
Women row, one alfo fteers with an Oar, and 
every Body ftands, there being no Seat : Thefe 
Boats move very flowly, and are called Luggage- 
Boats, by thofe who ufe Hudfon^s Streights, this 


Difcovery of a North-Weji PaJJage, 33 

feem to be for the Convenience of tranfporting J"'y- 
their FamiUes and Provifions, as their Fifliing 
and Hunting makes it neceflary •, in which they 
are employed all Summer, they procuring at that 
Time, as is fuppofed, their Winter Subfiftance, 
or great Part of it, and alfo their prefent Main- 
tenance : It is probable they come into thefe Parts 
as foon as the Weather permits, and return with 
the Winter to the Southward, to the Labrador 
Coaft, which reaches to Lat. 52. containing all 
the Lands between Hudfon's, Streights, and the 
Streights of Bell-Ip, at the Back of Newfound- 
land. S ome of thefe Indians who live to the South- 
ward have fair, others red Hair : They are all 
called EJkemaux^ which is a Word of Indian De- 
rivation, from the Jbenaguies Language, or the 
Language of thofe New England Indians, who 
alfo are called Eajiern Indians, and probably 
were their Neighbours formerly ; which Word 
alludes to a Cuftom mentioned, that of eating 
raw Flefh, and fignifies thofe who eat what is 
raw. This Opinion was carried fo far, that 
many believed they never did otherwife, and 
fuppofed that they made no Fires, out of a Re- 
ligious Veneration, which they had for Fire 
itfelf as a Deity. But the Contrary is now well 
known. The Cuftom of eating raw Flefh was 
the Produce of Neceflity, for, when hunting, the 
Country could afford them no Fuel to drefs it, 
they were alfo at a great Diftance from their 
Tents •, and the then Ufe of it might make raw 
Fielh not quite difagreeablo' to them, at fome 
F othe 

34 AVoYAGE for the 

J"'/' other Times when Hungry : But, when at 
their Tents, they make a Fire of Sea- Weed dried 
(as hath been obferved of thole EJkemaux to the 
Weftward of the JS^j) and drefs their Meat, pre^ 
ferringthe Meat fo dreffed to their Eating it raw. 
It is not above nine or ten Years fince they have 
been feen in the Streights in fuch Numbers, and 
which probably is upon the account of Trading 
with the Ships -, they feem to love Society for 
their Habitations, are never fingle, but confift of 
a Number of Tents pitched near one another. If 
we confider the Age, both of the Men and Wo- 
men who were alongfide the Ship, mod of them 
People in the Prime of Life, we may fuppofe 
that thefe only come abroad on thefe Expeditions 
to hunt, and the antient People ftay at Home. 
As to their Religion and Cuftoms, Httle Ac- 
count can be given •, their Language not being 
underllood, no one now goes afliore amongft 
them, and they are only feen by thofe in the 
Ha^/^«'s-jB^^ Ships, once in twelve Months, for 
» few Hours on their Outward-bound Paffage, 
and it is feldom they are feen when the Ships 
Return •, but when they are, it is more to the 
Southward off ManfeWs Ifland, tho' there is no 
- one of the Ifland s from which they have not 
come off to Trade, 

In their Trading they are fufficiently Sharp, 
ycu fliew them what you will Barter, and then 
you take from them what you intend to Truck, 
but they are for giving as little as they can, be- 

Difcovery of a North-Weji Pqffage, 35 

ing very unwilling to make any Additions to J^^X* 
their firft Offer -, when you have got as much of 
theirs (which you lay in a Heap) as you want for 
your Goods, you then give them your Truck, 
if they do not accept it, you then return them 

Mr. Baffyne in his Account (Jf Mr. Bytot^s Ex- 
pedition in 1615, tells us, that while they were 
furling their Sails on coming to an Anchor off of 
Savage Ides, ('and which Ifles took their Name 
upon the following Occafion) they heard and 
faw a great Company of Dogs, howling and 
barking, which appearing ftrange, they fent 
their Boat near Shore to fee if they could difcern 
any People, the Boat returned, and thofe who 
had been in the Boat faid there were Tents, Ca- 
noes, and Dogs, but for People they faw none ; 
afterwards Mr. Baffyne and feven others armed, 
went to the Tents, but found Nobody, marched 
to the Top of the Hill, and from thence faw a 
Canoe which had about fourteen People in it, 
whom they called to in Greenlandijh, and made 
Signs of Friendfliip. They did the like to him, 
but were fearful of him, and he, not trulling 
them, alfo, made Signs of a Knife and other 
Trifles, which he left upon the Top of a Hill, 
and returned to the Tents again, where they 
found to the Number of 30 or 40 Whale-fins, 
with a few Seal-Skins, which they took, leaving 
for them, Knives, Beads, and Counters. They 
found a Place where there were the Images of 
F 2 Men, 

36 A V OY AG z Jor the 

July. Men, and one Image of a Woman, which 
Mr. Baffyne brought away with him. 

Amongft thefe Tents, being five in Number, all 
covered with Seal-Skins, were running twenty- 
five or thirty Dogs, the moil of them muzzled, 
they were of a mungril Maftiff Breed, being 
of a brindle black Colour, looking almoft like 
Wolves i thefe Dogs they ufe to draw their 

Monck in his Expedition in the Year 1619, 
met with the EJkemaux on an Ifland on the North 
Shore, of the Streights, which is neither Named 
nor the Latitude or Longitude of it givenbut, on 
the firft Day they went Afhore, they perceived 
that there were Inhabitants, on the fecond they 
faw a Company of them, who all hid their Arms 
behind a Rock near to which they then were, and 
afterwards faluted the Danes^ which the Danes 
returned, the EJkemaux cautioudy keeping be- 
tween the Danes and their Arms •, which never- 
thelefs the Danes got too, and the EJkemaux 
finding their Amis taken were greatly perplexed, 
and by Signs intreated the Danes to reftore them, 
expreffing alfo that they had no other Way to 
iubfifl; but by Hunting, in which they made 
Ufe of thefe Arms, offering them their Cloaths 
in Reflitution •, this moved the Danes Com- 
pafTion, the Arms were reftored, and the EJke- 
maux ihewed their Scnfe of the Kindnefs by 
tailing on their Knees ; the Danes then prefented 


Difcovery of a North-Wefi Pajfage. 3 7 

them with Knives, Toys and Looking- glaflfes, J"V« 
which they were much taken with, and they in 
Return gave a Quantity of dry Fowl and Fifh. 
That Night the Danes failed, but were forced 
to return the next Day, when they found every 
thing they had prefented them with hung with 
a String on the Shore, and the EJkemaux gone. 
They faw feveral Times afterwards in other 
Parts, Marks of their being, or having been 
there, but could not attain a Sight of them. But 
to proceed on our own Voyage. 

About Night there fprung up a light Breeze at 
half an Hour after the EJkemaux left us, this 
Breeze continued, the Weather warm and plea- 
lant, which we attributed to the Wind being 
Eallerly, and our being clear of Ice. 

At Noon July i2th, faw four Iflands, three ^^^^ 
lefler and one larger j the large Ifland called Sad- 
dle-Back Ifland, the largeft of the other three, 
the great Salvage I fie ; the other two the lelTer 
Salvage Ifles, and, one of thefe Iflands lying 
within the Inlet much further than the reft, 
they are not all feen until you are abreaft of 
them. This Inlet opens to the Northward, and 
is fuppofed alfo to run on the Back of Terra 
Niveay into Mi/take- Bay, and by Lumley^ s Inltt 
to communicate with the Ocean, there proceed 
from it ftrong Currents which bring down great 
Quantities of Ice at Times, and thefe encountering 
with the Ice and Currents down the Streights 


38 A V oYAG Eforde 

July. caufe a great Jumbling and Confufion among th€ 
Ice ; when you are pafTed thefe Illands, you are 
fuppofcd to have paflfed the mod dangerous Part 
of the Streights, with refpedt to the Ice. Eaft 
of thefe Iflands is the Shore of 'Terra Nivea, to 
the Weft ward a high Bluff Land -, the Eaftermt)ft 
Point of which is now called Salvage-Point. 
Draughts of thefe Lands or of any others in of 
about the Streights it is fcarce poflible to make •, 
becaufe they are almoft at all Times covered with 
hght Fogs -, and a true Draught, when made, 
would be ufelefs, as the Lands on account of 
thofe Fogs fhew very feldom or ever as they 
really are, but at all Times different. 

The pleafant warm Weather continued, the 
Evening, that Night, and Part of the next 
1 3th. Morning, when, as well as on the Evening be- 
fore, there appeared feveral Fog -Banks in the 
Horizon. About fix in the Morning faw a 
large Ledge of Ice, (it grew cold and we had 
Rain) hearing the Rut of Water through it 
though at a League Diftance •, we tacked and 
avoided it. The Weather proved cloudy and 
fmall Rain, the whole Day excepting about two 
Hours at Noon, at two in the Afternoon met 
with low flat Iflands of Ice, of a lightifh blue 
Colour, thick covered with Snow, the Surface 
of the Ice very uneven much refembling Heaps 
of Stone at a Quarry's Mouth -, which Ice we 
continued to traverfe all that Afternoon and the 

Night, feeing about five that Evening the Land 


BifcoiJery of a North-Weji Pajfage, 39 

off of Hopes Advance. About feven the next July. 

Morning July the 14th, (ftill traverfing the 14th. 

Ice) faw the South Shore again, very high Rock 

and with a great Quantity of Ice fettled under it. 

The Wind about eight at Night of the thirteenth 

changing from N. N. E. to N. W. by N. the 

Rain ceafed, it continuing cloudy with the 

Weather Chill, and at ten the Morning of the 

fourteenth had a thick Fog, when it alfo became 

very Cold •, at eleven we got into a clear Sea, 

and free from Ice, having a fair Afternoon, and 

Night with a Continuance or rather Increafe of 

the Cold the Wind being N. N. W. andN. W. 

and in the Night a fmall Dew fell : This Ice we 

had been traverfing the thirteenth, and to the 

Noon of the fourteenth (fometimes Tacking on 

account of the Ice being clofe, and at other Times 

there being room to pafs, keeping our Courfe) is 

what the former Difcoverers called Majhtd or 

Fleaked Ice ; of which Captain Fox fays, ^ " you 

" fhall have numbers of IQands infinite, fome of 

*' the Quantity of a Rood, others a Perch, or an 

" Acre, fome two Acres, but the greater Part 

" of thefe Iflands are fmall, and about a Foot or 

*' 2 or more above the Water, and 8 or 10 or 

" more under the Water." We faw the Land the 

Noon of the fifteenth Cclear Sun-fhiny Weather 

with an Alteration to Warm, and a light Breeze 

at W. S. W.) The Land of the North Shore 

from the N. E. by N. Eafterly to the S. E. f S. 

the Land of the South Shore from the W. by S. 

Southerly to the S. W i S. a long Ridge of Land, 

3 Nwth-Weft, Fox. P. 186, 


4a AVoYAGE for the 

July. covered with large Spits of Snow, at about four 
Leagues Diftance, and the North Shore about 
nine Leagues, on which we alfo faw fome Snow 
lying i both Shores are very high, and confift of 
a brown barren Rock -, in the Land to the North- 
ward feveral Inlets, and feveral Iflands off Shore, 
moft of which in Time have received Appella- 
tions, by the former Difcoverers more out of 
Complement to their Employers, than any Ufe 
that could be collefted from their being fo 
named, therefore thofe who have gone this 
Voyage after having neglected to apply thefe 
Names to the feveral Iflands. It is not now 
known to which of the Iflands the Names pro- 
perly belong. Captain Moor fired feveral Times 
in the Morning in Hopes of another Vifit from 
the EJkemam. Saw to-day a Number of Sea-Spi- 
ders, the Whales Food, too well known from 
the many Defcribers to need any Defcription here. 
Though we had from the fourteenth at Noon, to 

1 6th. ^^ fixteenth, clear pleafant Weather; the Sea 
Calm, with light Breezes of Wind : it may 
not be to thefe Circumfl;ances that we muft in- 
tirely attribute ourCompafs, not Traverfing with- 
out ftirring the Box with the Hand or a wooden 
Rod. At Noon of the fixteenth, it grew hazy 
and at one we began to pafs amongft Ice which 
feemed very rotten, the Snow looking of a grey 
Colour upon it •, continue pafiing Ice, which at 
fix grows much thicker, and meeting with a 
Ridge of Ice, which had Spots of Water withia 
it, and the Water to be feen, beyond it we enter 


Difcovery of a North-Wefi Paff'age. 41 

and pufli through : This Ice and that we faw all J"^y- 
the latter Part of the Afternoon, far exceeded in 
Dimenfions the ufual fleaked Ice before men- 
tioned, there being flat Pieces whofe Surface were 
not in Contents lefs than forty A cres, and to a 
Piece the Surface about fix Acres we grappled * 
at eight. Saw this Morning a Number of Seals, 
four or five together, and this Day and Yefter- 
day more than at any Time before ; Cape Charles 
bearing South of us in the Evening, diifant five 
Leagues, which was firfl named by Mr. Hudfon, 
Mount Charles^ defcribed as Part of the Main, 
and is fo exprefled in all the old Charts, but in 
them called Cape Charles ; even called by Cap- 
tain Fox Prince Charleses Cape on the South 
Main ^ now known to be Part of an Ifland which 
is named the Ifland of Charles^ having a high 
bluff Rocky Land to the N. E. which is the 
Cape, or Cap Charles ; the Ifland running low 
to the Well ward. 

* To grapple we Hood, having but afmall Sail out, direftly 
for the Midole of the Piece, and came to it a? flow and eafie 
as polFible, lowering our Topfail-Yards : When we touched 
the Ice, the Lieutenant wirh two Hands immediately ftepping 
from off the Ship's Head upon the Ice ; one Hand with an 
Ice- Hook, which is an Iron fliaped like an S. of about three 
Feet long, of good Strength, the Lieutenant with an Ax to 
chip a Hole in the Ice to fix one End of the Ice-Hook in, and 
the other Hand with a Rope which hath a Thimble, or bit 
of Iron Ring at the End, to put over that turn of the Ice-Hook 
which lies up; and (he other End of the Rope is Aboard. This 
is done with all poffible Agility to prevent the Trouble that 
might otherwife happer, by thi; Sliip's fwinging off. When 
one Ice-Hook is fixed, they carry out another Alkrn, and 
fome from the Midihips, confineing the Ship to lie Alongfide 
the Piece of Ice, as quietly and dofely as it at a Key -Side. 

G The 

4^ A V o y AG E for the 

Jul/. 1'i^c Piece of Ice we grappled to had a Pond 

upon it (as many Pieces have) the Water tho' 
produced from the melted Snow, is extreme 
good and fit for all Ufes. We took the Opportu- 
nity of filling fuch Water-Cafks as were empty, 
but not from any Neceffity that we were under 
for want of Water, or being any ways fhort of it. 
Thefe Ponds in Time, work through the Piece 
to the Scci- Water, which you readily perceive 
upon tafting, by the Water being Brackilh, and 
is then unfit for Ufe, Thefe Ponds by thus 
working through, greatly contribute to the Dif- 
folution of the Ice. 

Soon after Grappling, the Ice clofed round us 
* 7'^' for fome Leagues, which in the Morning was 
fome-what parted •, in the Afternoon the Water 
made a great Rut, as though paffing through an 
Arch, being the Flood-Tide with a flrong 
Wind which caufed the Ice to feparate more 
than it had done in the Morning, but the W^ind 
being too fcant, and blowing too frefli for our 
making any Way : It was to no Purpofe to un- 

We were warmer that Evening we grappled 
and the next Day, though furrounded by the 
Ice, than we had been at any Time fince the 
firll of July \ the Weather dark and hazy. 

From N. W. away to S. the Horizon looked 
about feven in the Evening of the feventeenth, 


bifiovery of a North-Weji Paffage. 4i 

extremely black, afterwards Thunder and Light- J^V- 
ning from that Quarter with fome Rain, about 
eight that Part of the Horizon cleared fome- 
what, appearing of a red fiery Colour, and the 
Flafhes of Lightning feemed to be larger than 
before •, the Thunder died off by twelve, but 
the Lightning then at E. by S. continued; it 
alfo blowed hard with Rain. By three in the 
Morning of the eighteenth, the Lightning was 1 8:h; 
round toN. and N. E. Lightning in both Points 
at one and the fame point of Time, the Flafhes 
long and great : the Wind then fell little, and 
there came on a thick wet Fog. 

Excepting a fewlflands, at a fmall Diftarice the 
Sea was clear of Ice to the N. and W. The Ice 
which was nearer, though it furrounded the Ship, 
was alfo much feparated, but from the Wind 
being W. by N. and little, afterwards a Calm, 
we could not prefs through the Ice that was near 
to get into fuch clear Sea •, driving with the 
Ifland we were grappled to S. E. as did the Ice 
round us \ feeming to approach a large clofe 
Body of Ice, and to have another coming down 
upon us. The Ifland we were fo fait too was 
thawed in manyPlaces, thePonds foaked through, 
and before fix parted in three Pieces, fettifig 
the Ship loofe, but fhe was hauled alongfidc 
the Dobbs, our People firft taking in the Ice- 

At Seven (Cape Charles bearing S. W. by S. 

Diftant about five Leagues from our having 

G 2 dfovc 

44- A V o Y A G E Jor the 

JuV- drove confiderably with the Ice) we looled with 
the Wind, at W. by S. and kept working to 
the Windward amongft Ice, with a N. W. Courfe 
until ten, when there was a fall of Sleet \ and it be- 
coming hazy Weather with a hard Gale of Wind 
at N. Both Captains agreed to Grapple •, be- 
fore Noon Snow and Rain, with quite a Storm 
of Wind at N. 

The Ship being to the Windward of the Ice, 
as was alfo the Dobbs^ (and the Ice not fetting 
round v/ith them as is ufual, and laying them to 
Leeward) they jogged much, beating their Sides 
againft the Ice : The Piece broke about two in 
the Afternoon, the Hooks held it together fome 
little Time •, afterwards, it came into fo many 
Pieces, that they were forced to caft the Ships 

off; before the breaking of the Ice, many 
Pieces drove down upon us, which were fet off 
with the Ice-Poles, one very large and heavy 
Piece, threatning to unlift or damage the 
Rudder. * 

* From the Accident of the Ice breaking, might be feer: 
the Service of the lm?ll Boats (which are frocTi eleven to foui ■ 
teen Feet in Length) earned by Ships which go into thele 
Streights ; they are convenient lor carrying out Rope?, fetch- 
ing the Hooks olT the Ice, and the People off the Ice, gone 
out to get fuch Hooks, but prevented perhaps from leturning 
by the Piece they were on parting and fwimniing away ; the 
Si'/e oi the Boats making them Portable fo as they can be 
heighfted upon a Piece of Ice it another Piece is driveing down 
upon it, or carried over a Pieci' when there is not Room for 
paffipg between two Pieces, which oiher Boats from their Size 
aretco Cuinberlomc for, and as they cannot be lifted about, are 
liable every M;nute to be ftaved by of the Pieces of Ice, 
which fwim c\q'.c and near each other when the ice is firft 
feparatcd, this Boat alfo at other Times iianging on the 
Quarter is ready to lower at Sea, upon any Accident which 
jjiakes it Necel^uy for to lower a Boat. 


Bifcovery of a North-Weft Paffage, 45 

Captain Moor caft off firft, drove juft clear J"^y- 
of us, and the fame Weather continuing made 
faft to another Piece, which not being fufficient 
to hold both Ships, we grappled to an Ifland at 
fmall Diftance, but the Dobbs driveing with the 
Ice to the Leeward, the California ahead, were 
two Miles diftant in the Morning •, nor was it '9'^. 
polTible to call off to get nearer each other, when 
they perceived their being fet with the Ice con- 
trary Ways : It becoming foon after the Ship's 
grappling a clofe Body of Ice, with only Imall 
Spots of Water here and there, for Leagues 
round, and farther than the Eye could carry 
from the Maff-head -, the fame on all Sides •, a 
melancholy Profped: was it not known that in 
a few Hours the whole Scene might change. 
Such Circumflances as thofe we have laft related, 
lead Mr. Hudfon into Defpair, fearing he never 
fhould get out of, but perifh amongft the Ice ^ 
*' The Storm ceafing (fays Pricket who gives an 
*' Account of Mr. Hudfon' s, Voyage) we flood 
" out of the Ice, where we faw any clear Sea to 
*' go to, which was fometime more and fome- 
" times lefs. Our Courfe was as the Ice did 
^' lie, fometimes to the North, then to the 
" North- Wefl, and then to the Weft, and to 
-" the South- Wefl, but ftill inclofed with Icej 
" Which when our Mafter faw, he made his 
*' Courfe to the South, thinking to clear him- 

felf of the Ice that Way, but the more he 

* Purchafe's Pilgrims t Lib. 3 Chap, 17. P. 598. 

*' flrove. 


A V o Y A G "L for the 

" {Irove, the worle he was, and the more iri- 
*' doled, until he could go no further. Here 
«' our Mafterwas inDefpairj and (as he told this 
" Pricket after) he thought he never Ihould have 
" got out of the Ice but there have periflied.'* 

The Iflands of Ice which we faw for thefe fe- 
veral Days paft, as to Colour, they were of a 
light Blue^ moftly covered with a thick Snow,- 
fwimming a fmall height above the Water, and 
upon their Surface there were Pieces of Ice of a 
thoufand various forms *, and when thefe Iflands 
(which fepafated, were moftly large, few of 
them lefs than three Acres) came to clofe and 
join, thefe different Forms of the Ice on the Sur- 
face, and which you would fee for Leagues toge- 
ther, made a very romantick Appearance. The 
Weather though dry altered to be very Cold, the 
Wind which leffened in the Night, now the next 
Morning, July the 19th about fix, blowed hard 
at N. and the Sea which over-night was fo thick 
Avith Ice as nothing elfe could be feen : By eight 
this Morning was fo cleared by the Tide and 
Current that we could get on our Way, and 
without Difficulty run Down to Captain Moori 
who alio got on his Way. From eight it fet on 
Raining, continuing mod of the Day, and until 
twelve at Night, with hazy Weather, the Wind 
lefs. In the aiternoon we faw a Part of the South 
Main through the Haze, with Snow upon it, 
very high hilly Rocks, the Southermoft Part 
W. by S. with a Ledge of Ice lying before it, 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Faff age. 47 

and Cape Charles N. W. by W. I W. five (* fix l^^y- 
Leagues, Therefore reckoned that while amongft 
the Ice, the Ship had been fet about five Leagues 
to S. E. We proceeded all Night, and until 
the Noon of the next Day which was much as 20 h. 
the Night before, cold, rainy, dirty Weather, 
frequently feeing Ice, but keeping clear from 
any Body of it. But in the Afternoon then lefs 
Rain and haz;y with little Wind, paffed amongfi: 
Ice, and at fix in the Evening upon Captain Moor's 
Signal grappled ; Captain Moor giving for a Rca- 
fon that the Wind was fcanting and a ligjit Fog 
was come on. 

The Ice was pretty clofe about us all the Night 
until the Morning of the 21ft, and frefh Windat^ift^ 
N. but the Weather clear and hazy alternately. 
At fix in the Morning of the 2ifl:, Cape Charles 
bearing S. five Leagues, we had got no Ground 
fince the fixteenth in the Evening, Cape Charles 
then bearing the fame •, clofe hazy Weather the 
reft of the Day, and the Haze thick upon the 
the Shore until five in the Afternoon, when it 
cleared •, and then we were within two Leagues 
of fuch Cape, having drove with the Ifiand we 
were faft too, three Leagues fince fix that 

At ten in the Evening we ungrappled from 
the Ice, were foon in a clear Sea, clear Weather 
that Night and the Morning of the twenty-fecond zzi, 
iintiU ten, then foggy with a dark hazy After- 


48 AVoYAGE for the 

July. Noon, cold, but a pleafant Gale of Wind, at 
E. S. E. paffing much Ice at the Time, and run 
during the whole Afternoon by a prodigious Body 
of flat level Ice, to Southward, which was con- 
tinual without Break, and feemed to ftretch quite 
to the Shore, fuch as the Dutch call a Wall of 

In the Evening of the twenty-fecond, the Ice 
we paft amongft fwam much clofer, or the Pieces 
nearer each other, then what we had before met 
with in the Day, and two Pieces which we paffed 
between, immediately after joined, and hindered 
the Dobbs from pafiing ; upon which we ftood 
towards her, then having an Opening ; but there 
being a thick Fog, and the Ice coming down 
very fall, it was thought moft advifeable to 
grapple ; the Fog cleared about ten, hazy from 
that Time to four, when the Ice furrounded us 
2,(3 on all Sides. Clear Weather until feven, when 

the Ice was fet away by the Currents, as the Day 
before j with little Wind at S. S. E. 

At eight that Morning July the 2 3d, the Ifland 
Gi Salijburyhort'^. diftant feven Leagues, high 
and rocky like the North and South Shore of the 
Streights, of an Oblong form lying in Latitude 
€^, 30. and Longitude 73. W. firft difcovered by 
yiv.Hudfon^ who fays in his Account, " » The 
*' fecond Day of Auguft we had Sight of a fair 

^PurchapiPil, Lib. 3. Chap. 17. P. 597. 

" Head^ 

bifcoDery of a Norih-Weji 'BupgL 49 

•E' Head-Land on the Northern Shore, fix J"'y^ 
« Leagues off, which I called Salijburfs Fore- 
" land:" After the Rt. Hon. and not to be 
forgotten (asCapt.Fcx exprefles himfelf ) R obert 
Cecillj Earl of Salijhury (in the Year 1610) 
Lord High Treafurer of England. Pricket in his 
Account of Hudfon'% Voyage fays, " To th^ 
" North and beyond this, that is. Cape Charles^ 
*^ lies an IQand, that to the Eaft hath a fair Head, 
*' and beyond it to the Weft other broken Land^ 
*' which maketh a Bay within, and a good Road 
*« may be found there for Ships j our Matter 
** named the firitCape Salipury" Captain FoXy 
who was within four Miles, fays it is high Land 
but not clifted. It is now difcoVered there are 
two Iflands, the one fmall to the South- Eaft^ 
ward of the other, which is termed Cape Salijbury% ■ 
and the larger Ifland is the IHand of Salijhury ; 
there is alfo another fmall Ifland to the North" 
ward of Salijhury Id&nd. We were at no Time 
nearer than feven Leagues* 

Ungrappling at eleven, the Ice was fo parted 
that with the Afiiftanceof the Wind right aft, we 
could force through: Enjoying fine Weather 
with Sunfhine, alfo warm. At four could pafs 
the Ice without almoft altering the Helm ; but 
having a great Wall of Ice on the Weather-Bowv 
It was obfervable of thefe fmall Iflands we paflTed 
amongft, that they were not fet by the Current 
any Way, but remained in one Place ♦, the Water 
as calm as in a Mill-Pool, only now and then 
H oixe 

|o ^Voyage for the 

JuJy. one of thefe fmall Iflands would fuddenly Ihoo* 
fwiftly forward a hundred Yards, and then 
return almoft with an equal Agility to the Spot 
it went from, and there remain ftill, and this 
with little Perturbation of the Water. 

The Current at eight at Night of the 23d (tho* 
the Surface of the Water was calm and fmooth) 
let both Ships fo ftrongly on a Piece of Ice, that 
they were forced to grapple, and then Salijbury 
bore N. N. W. eight Leagues, further diftant 
than in the Morning, or we were more to the 
Southward and Eaftward than in the Morning. 
The Ice, while we were forcing through, and the 
Time we had grappled to it, from two to four 
in the Afternoon, having fet with us to the 
Southward, more than we could recover between 
four in the Afernoon, and eight in the Evening ; 
though we lleercd a Weft Courfe, and feem- 
ingly went ahead : All the Advantage received, 
we were nearer a clear Sea, and out of the 
thicker Part of the Ice. The Night was clear 
34 th. and pleafant, fo the Morning of the twenty- 
fourth, and the Ice which had clofed round us 
opened to N. W. Cape Charles S. E. eight 
or nine Leagues. At ten cail off, and afterwards 
faw a Whale of about thirty Feet in Length, con- 
trary to the ulual Obfervation of their not being 
in Hudfori's Streights, excepting jufl at the En- 
trance, was of the right Whalebone Kind ; fteered 
from the Ship, and dived under a large Wall 
of Ice to the Leeward. Cape Charles x\itn bore 

S. 1 E« 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Pajfage. 51 

S. I E. nine or ten Leagues. Salijhury N. N. W. July, 
eight or nine Leagues. 

Sailed all the Morning between two Bodies of 
Ice, in a Channell of about a League wide, fome 
fmalllflands of Ice fwimroing by us, fo till three 
in the Afternoon, when we grappled to a very 
large Body that reached for Miles. The Tide 
foon bringing down another Body of Ice towards 
us, which, though a very large Body, would 
firft drive one Way with great Swiftnefs, pre- 
fently ftop, then return ; the fmaller Pieces with 
the Impulfe of the Water tumbHng over and 
over ; at half an Hour after twelve a Part of it 
came down to the Ship, chucked her clofe up to 
the Ice flie was faffc to i breaking away one of 
the Hook-Ropes, and breaking alfo the Part of 
the Ice Ihe was fafk too in feveral Pieces. At fix 
the Water had opened the Ice juft about where 
the Ship lay, fo as to form a fmall Bay, which 
gave an Opportunity to grapple to a frefh Piece, 
Captain Moor continuing as he was j and in fix 
Hours the Current brought the Ice fo in between 
the two Ships, that they were more than a Mile 
diftant from each other ; all Endeavours to get 
the Ships nearer were InefFe6lual : The Ice be- 
ing infeparable, as it was very little decayed. 
This Ice was white, quite to the Bottom, about 
fifteen Feet in Depth. It was the Ice out of fome 
jrelh Water River. 

H 2 Three 

p !^ V o Y A G E/or the 

h'j* Three of the Ship's Company tempted by the 

Weather (which continued warm and pleafant 
with Sun- Ihine) walked over the Ice in the After-- 
noon to the Dohhs^ then at the fame Diftance as 
at Noon, more than a Mile off, not meeting 
with above three Openings or Splittings- in the 
Ice, neither of which were above a Foot broad. 
But they had not been Aboard the Bobhs half an 
Hour before the Ice was opened by the Tide, 
forming an infinite Number of Ifiands, and fo wide 
a Channel between the two Ships, in the very Part 
juft before walked over, that the Bohbs failed 
down to join the California: Which Relation is 
^lade folely with an Intent to precaution others. 

J 3th. In the Night, Jufy the 25th, a large Piece of 

Ice drove alongfide Captain Moor^ fix Fathom 
and a half in Depth, with a Tong. What is 
called a Tong is a fharp-pointed Piece, which 
projefts from the other Parts, is very hard, and 
ufually appears of a light Blue, (which Tong rar^ 
under his Ship, and by lifting her, brought her 
almoft on her Careen, or almofV laid her abroad- 
fide.) It is from thefe Tongs, (which from their 
being under Water are more concealed, and froni 
their Hardnefs if touched, are capable of pierce- 
ing a Ship under her Bends, fo foundering her) 
that proceeds the greateft Danger amongft the 
Ice. They fhould be carefully look'd for, and a? 
^11 Times avoided. 


Bifcovery of a North-Weft PaJJage, i^^ 

The Morning of the 26th, we were inclofed 2($th. 
in Ice •, it was cloudy, the Sun feldom lliewing 
itfelf, with little Wind at N, N. W. the Weather 
only chill ; at Noon had a fmall Shower of Rain ; 
in the Afternoon about two, fome Thunder and 
Lightning, when we were ungrappled, tra- 
verfing the Ice which was cleared from the Head 
of the Ship with Handfpikes ; at five grappled 
again, but to two different Pieces through Ne- 
ceffity i which caufed us to be feparated in the 
Morning of the twenty-feventh, about half a 
League, The Ice inclofing us on all Sides with- 
out the leaft Water to be feen, and one of the 
largeft Pieces of Ice feen fince Entering the 
Streights, being as high as our Deck, fat clofe 
upon our Bow, not without putting us under 
fome Apprehenfions, for fear the Piece would 
Qverfet, or break, and fo do the Ship a Damage* 
The Evening was pleafant, but the Night cloudy 
with a frefli Gale at W. S, W, and from elevea 
to twelve Rain. 

The Morning of the 27th was cloudy, fo till 27tli^ 
Noon ; had heighfted fome Sail to prefs the 
Ship forward in the Ice, which was fo clofe that 
it was to litde Purpofe. And in the Afternoon the 
People were imploy*d, in wrenching the Pieces 
pflceafunder with Handfpikes, which ftuck with 
their Ends jambed the one under another, they 
breaking offalfo the Points of the Ice with Hat- 
chets, and ^oing out with Warps ahead tp tow. 

54 !^ V o Y A G E Jor the 

Ju^y- all with lefs Succefs than their Labour feemed to 
dcferve ; the Ice clofing very fall, and obliging 
us ta grapple again at nine. What added to 
their Difficulties, it rained hard, all the Time, 
and fell very cold, which Weather continued un- 

?8ih. til twelve, the Wind varying from W. S. W. to 
S. W. by S. and W. about one N. W. then a 
Fog, and the Ice feparating fo much that both 
Ships drove a-pace to Eaftward, with the Iflands 

they were fattened to, and Captain Moor by 
two was within half a Mile of us, firing a Gun,^ 
a Signal in the Fog, to know where we were ; 
the Signal was anfwered, and the Tiohbs foon 
after feen, as the Fog cleared a little, which it 
continued to do and thicken until four, then 
cleared intirely. But, the Wind being contrary 
ftill N. W. a frelh Gale, could not ungrapplc. 
Until eight very cold Weather, fuch as we had not 
felt •, between eight and twelve fome what warmer 
and dry. Between four and fix in the Morning the 
Ice had inclofed us again, but at two in the after- 
noon opened, fo that we cafi; off and prefifed 
through it. Wind about W. Captain Moor al- 
fo got under Way and, making an Angle with 
our Courfe, met us i the Ice grew more and more 
open until fix, when we got into a clear Sea, 
Cafe Charles^ S. eight or nine Leagues. 

In the Afternoon had fome Sun-fhine, but at 
five Rain and Wind, at W. S. W. and fqually 
at fix. At eight Rain, fo again at ten, and hazy 
with Rain at Times until twelve, the Ship keep- 

Difcovery of a North Weft "Parage, $ 5 

ing under Sail, fometimes amongft failing Ice, J"^y- 
and tacking, to avoid the large Bodies of 
Ice. The Haze, with Rain at Times, continued 
till five, the Morning of the 29th, then clearer 29thi 
Weather, but a wet Fog at fix, which continued 
for a fmall Time. The Morning was cloudy and 
dark until eleven, then fome Sun, the Wind 
round to N. W. the Sun fhot in foon after twelve, 
and, before two, the Wind W. by S. the Fog 
came on, and was repeatedly on and ofi^ until 
four, very cold. Then cloudy Weather until 
eight, afterwards Hail with Rain, until twelve. 
Wind N. N. W. mofi: Part of this Day and 
Night, the 29th of July ^ were in a clear Sea 5 
tacking, when near a Body of Ice. 

Such Weather^ as was in the Evening and 
Night of the twenty-ninth, continued to the Noon 
of the thirtieth, with the Addition of the Wind 50th, 
blowing frclher, at N. W. and of the Rain, 
about fix in the Morning, coming in hard 
Squalls. The Noon was fair with Sun-fhine, but 
cold J feeing Salijbury bearing N. N. E. the 
fame Weather lafted until eight, then cloudy, the 
Wind falling, it became almofl: calm at ten ; 
hazy and cloudy, from that time to eight in the 
Morning, July the 3ifi:, with light Winds, at jift. 
S. S. W. when the Sun broke out, but was foon 
after veiled with a wet Fog, which continued un- 
til fix in the Evening •, then clearer Weather. 
We faw the Ifland of Salijbury, and, at the fame 
Time, the Ifland of Nottingham, the Weft End 


5^ -^VoVAGE for the 

July. o^ Nottingham^ in Sight N. W. I W. theEall 
End N. E. diftant each Point about four' 
Leagues ; and on Soundinghad 6c^ Fathom, light- 
coloured owfy Ground. This Ifland was fo na- 
med, according to Captain Fox, by Mr. Hudfon^ 
after the Honourable Lord Charles Howard, Earl 
oi Nottingham, m 1610, Lord High Admiral of 
England. The Ifland to the Weft ward appeared 
low and flat; from which there is a gradual Rife 
until it becomes high •, this Height continues near 
two Thirds of the Length of the Ifland, and then 
from fuch a Height there is a Defcent to the Eafl; 
Part of the Ifland, which Eafl: Part is not fo low 
as what the Weft part is 5 the Lat. is 6^^. 21". 
Long 77°. 40'. W. » Upon the North- Weft; 
Side of Notti?igham Ifland, there are two or three 
fmall Iflands, which lie off^ from the greater, which 
make very good Harbours about this Ifle ; as 
Mr. By lot experienced, having fo much foul 
Weather, and many Storms, from the 19th to 
the 26th of July, that he ftaid there. There are 
alfo many fmall lone Ifles to the S. Point of 
the Ifland •, without which, Mr. Baffyite obferves, 
in the Account of Mr. Bylot's Expedition, there 
would have been a fit Place to have anchored, to 
have found out the true Set of the Tide : but the 
Mafter, Mr. Bylot, who had been in the three 
Expeditions which preceded, viz. in Hud-^ 
fon^s. Sir. 'Thomas Button^, and Gibhn's, be- 
ing defirous to come to the fame Place, where 

* PurchaJe'sPih Lib. iii. Chap. 17. P. 597. 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Pajage. 57 

he had rode before, in the Expedition of Sir July- 
Thomas Button, flood along by this Ifle to the 
Weftward, and came to an Anchor in the Eddy 
of thefe broken Grounds, where the Ship rode 
at no Certainty of the Tide •, and on the twenty- 
feventh in the Morning, it being foul Vv^eather^ 
the Anchor would not hold in eight Fathom ; 
but they were drove into deeper Water, and 
forced to fet Sail. 

The Weather continued clear until twelve at Auguft. 
Night of the 31(1, then little Wind at S. and a *^^- 
Fog, which Fog wetted extremely, lalled un- 
til four, and then fmall Rain, and very cold. 
Hazy until after five, the Wind W. having been 
at two, W. by N. at four W. by S. then clearer 
until ten, when again foggy, but the Sun fome- 
times appearing through it ; at twelve the Fog 
thick and very wet, continuing fo until two, the 
Wind N. W. by W. then clearing we faw Not- 
tingham, the Middle N. E. the W. End N. by E. 
the E. End E. by N. within lefs than four 
Leagues, not having, on the Weftern Side at 
leaft, fo barren a Look as Terra Nivea, or Re- 
folution, feeming to have feveral gralTy Spots, 
with but little Snow lying on it ; it confifls of 
Chains or Ridges of Hills, one within another, 
and fhews to be broad, the Middle of the Ifland 
projecting much forwarder, and fo more to the 
Southward than the Extremes ; which explains 
what Mr. Baffyne means by the South Point of 
this Ifland mentioned before. 

I The 

58 ^Voyage for the 

Auguft. xhe clear Weather continuing, faw Diggs's 
Ifland, as alfo the South Shore, firft difcovered 
by Mr. Hudfon -, and the Ifland named by him 
after Sir Dudley Diggs, who, as well as nis Fa- 
ther, had been a great Promoter of thefe Difco- 
veries ; upon this I (land the EJkemaux were firft 
met with, when the Mutineers, who had ex- 
pofed : Mr. Hudfon, returned hither with the 
Ship, * " The Boattiien went to jD/§-^.y's Cape, 
" (fays Mr. Pricket in his Account of Hudfon's 
*' Voyage) diredly for the Place where the Fowl 
" breed (Willocks) where they law feven Boats 
" come about theEaftern Point towards them ; 
" but, when the Salvages faw their Boat, they 
" drew their lefTer Boats into their bigger, which 
" when they had done, they came rowing to their 
*' Boat, and made Signs to the reft. Our Men 
" made ready for all ElTays ; the Salvages came 
" to them, and they grow familiar one with ano- 
*' ther, fo that ours took one of theirs into their 
*' Boat, and they took one of ours into theirs ; 
^' then they carried our Men to a Cove where 
'* their Tents ftood, to the Weftward of the 
*' Place, where the Fowl breed ; fo they carried 
" our Man into their Tents, where he remained 
" until our Men returned theirs; in our Boat 
*' went their Man to the Place where the Fowl 
" breed -, and, we being defirous to know how 
*' the Salvages killed their Fowl, he fhewed 

« Pncief's Account of HuifarCs, Voyage, North- Weft, 
Fox, p. no. 

" them 

Difcovery of a North -Weft Pajfage. 59 

*« them the Manner how, which was thus: They*Augua. 

" take a long Pole with a Snare at the End, 

" which they put about the Fowl's Neck, and 

" fo pluck them down ; whtn our Men knew 

" that we had a better Way, and lb ihewed the 

" the Salvages the Ufe of our Pieces, which at 

*' one Shoot would kill {tvQ.\\ or eight. To be 

*' fliort, they returned to the Cove to receive 

" our Man, and to deliver theirs. When they 

" came, they made great Joy with Dancing, 

*' Leaping, and Striking their Breafts ^ they 

*' offered divers Things to our Men, but they 

" only took fome Moors Teeth, which they 

*' gave them for a Knife and two Glafs Buttonsj 

" fo receiving our Man, they came Aboard, 

" rejoicing at this Chance, as if they had met 

*' with the moft fimple People of the World.'* 

Henry Greene^ more than the reft (who was 
the Principal in the cxpofing. Mr. Hudfon 
" was fo confident that we fhould by no Means 
" take Care to Hand upon our Guard (God 
*' Winded him fo)that, where he thought to re- 
" ceive great Matters from this People, he re- 
" ceived more than he looked for •, and that 
" fuddenly, by being made an Example for all 
*' Men that make no Confcience of doing Evil ; 
" and that we take Heed how we truft the Sal- 
" vage People, how fimple foever they feem 
*' to be. 

" They madeHafte to be on Shore, and, be- 

" caufe the Ship rode far off, they weighed, 

I 2 and 

6o ^ V o Y A G E/<?r the 

Augull. <« and flood as near to the Place where the Fowl 
" breed as they could : and, becaufe he (this 
*' Writer) was lame he was to go into the Boat 
*' to carry fuch Things as he had in the Cabbin, 
t' of every Thing fomewhat; and fo, with more 
*' hade than good fpeed, away he went •, as did 
" Henry Greene^ William Wilfon^ John Thomas ^ 
" Michael Pierce, ^ndJndrew MoUer, when they 
*' came near the Shore, the People were on the 
" Hills dancing and leaping •, to the Cove we 
" came, where they had drawn up their Boats. 
<« We brought our Boat to the Eaft Side of the 
" Cove dole to the Rocks j on Land they go, 
'* and make fafc the Boat to a great Stone on the 
" Shore •, the People came, and every one had 
" fomething in his Hand to barter •, but Henry 
-' Greene fwore that they fliould have nothing 
" until he had Veniibn, for that they had fo 
** promifed him by Signs the lail Day. 

" Now, when we came, they made Signs to 
" their Dogs, whereof there were many like 
»* Mongrels, as big as Hounds, and pointed to 
'« the Mountains, and to the Sun, clapping their 
*' their Hands. Then Henry Greene, John Tho- 
** mas, and William Wilfon (which two we 
" may confider next after Greene in the Affair of 
*' Mr. Hudfon) flood hard by the Boat's Head -, 
" Michael Pierce and Andrew Motter (who were 
" alfo in the Confpiracy, but under the Dirediion 
" of the others) were got upon the Rocks ga- 
'* thering of Sorrel ; not one of them had any 

" Weapon 

Difcovery of a North-Weft PaJJ'age. 6i 

" Weapon about him, not fo much as a Stick, Auguft. 
*' fave Henry Greene only, who had a Piece of a 
" Pike in his Hand, nor faw he any Thing 
" they had to jfhoot him with. Henry Greene 
•* and Wiljon h:d Looking-GlaiTes, Jews- 
" Trumps, and Bells, which they were Ihew- 
" ing; the Salvages (landing round about them, 
" one of them came into the Boat's Head to fhew 
" Pricket a Bottle -, this Writer {Pricket) made 
" Signs unto him to get him Afhore, but he 
" made as though he had not underftood him : 
*' Whereupon heftoodup, and pointed at him 
" on S hore. In the mean Time another Hole be- 
" hind to the Stern of the Boat; and, when he 
" faw him Afhore that was on the Boat's-Head, 
" he fat down again, but fuddenly he faw the 
*' Legs and Feet of a Man by him, where- 
" fore he cafl up his Head and faw the Salvage, 
*' with his Knife in his Hand, who ffruck at his 
*' Breail over his Head J he calling up his Arm 
" to fave his Bread, the Salvage wounded his 
" Arm, and ftruck him into the Body, under 
" the right Pap ; the Salvage flruck a fecond 
" Blow, which he met with his left Hand, and 
" then ftruck him into the Thigh, and had Hke 
" to have cut off the litde Finger of his left 
*' Hand. Now this Writer had got hold of the 
" String of the Knife, and had wound it about 
" his left Hand, he driving with both his Hands 
" to make an End of that he had begun, found 
" the Salvage but weak in the Gripe, and (God 
" enabling himj getting hold of the Sleeve of his 

" left 

62 ^Voyage jor the 

Auguft. " left Arm, he faw his left Side lay open to him ; 
" which when he faw, he put the Sleeve of his 
'* left Arm into his left Hand, holding the String 
*' of the Knife faft in the fame Hand, and, ha- 
" ving got his right Hand at Liberty, he fought 
*' for fomewhat, wherewith to ftrike him, not re- 
" membering his Dagger at his Side -, but, look- 
" ing down he faw it, and therewith ftruck the 
" Salvage into the Body and Throat. 

" Whilft he was thus aflauked in the Boat, 
*' their Men were fet upon on the Shore •, John 
*' 'Thomas and William Wilfon had their Bowels 
" cut, and Michael Fierce and Henry Greene^ 
" being mortally wounded, came tumbling into 
*' the Boat together •, when Andrew Matter faw 
" this Medley, he came running down the 
*' R ock, and leaped into the Sea, and fo fwam 
" to the Boat, and hung at her Stern, until 
*' Michael Pierce took him in, who manfully 
" made good the Boat's-Head, againft the Salva- 
*' ges that prefTed fore upon them. Now Michael 
*' Pierce had got a Hatchet, with which he 
** ftruck one fo that he lay fprawling in the Sea \ 
" Henry Greene cried Couragio, and laid about 
*' him with a Truncheon. This Writer crieth to 
" clear the Boat's-Head, and Andrew Motter 
*' crieth to betaken in-, the' Salvages betake 
'* them to their Bows and Arrows, which they 
*.' fent fo amongft them, that Henry Greene was 
*' flain outright, and Michael Pierce received 
" many Wounds, and fo did the reft. Michael 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Paffage, 63 

" Pierce cleareth the Boat, and putteth it from Auguft. 
" Shore, and helpeth Andrew Motter in •, but, in 
" the Clearing the Boat, Pricket received a 
" cruel ^Vound in the Back with an Arrow. 
" Michael Pierce and Motter rowed away the 
" Boatj which when the Salvages faw, they 
" came to their Boats, which they feared they 
" would have launched to have followed them, 
*' but they did not •, their Ship was in the middle 
" of the Channel, and yet could not fee them all 
" this Time. 

" Now when they had rowed a good Way from 
" the Shore, Pierce fainted and could row no 
" more. Then was Motter driven to ftand in 
" the Boat's-Head, and wave to the Ship, which 
*' at firft faw them not-, and, when they did, 
" they could not tell v/hat to make of them, but 
'* in they flood for them, and fo they took them 
" up. Greene was thus thrown into the Sea, 
" the reft were taken into the Ship, the Salvage 
*' being yet alive, but without Senfe. That Day 
" dyed PFilfon^ cuifing and fwearing in a moft 
" fearful Manner ; Michael Pierce lived two 
" Days and then died. Thus you have had the 
" tragical End of Greene, and his three Mates -, 
♦' the juft Judgments of God, on the Principals 
*' in the expofing of their Commander Mr. Hud- 
*-} fon, with his Son, and feven more of his 
*' People, who were never more heard of. '* 


64 ^Voyage for the 

Auguft. Sir Thomas Button^ who was the next in this 

Voyage, fetting out in the Year 1612, faw 
the EJkemaux^ firft upon this Ifland i they 
having alfo a Fray with his People : " * Here, 
" fays Captain Fox, the Salvages did offer to 
" affault his Men (found going to kill Willocks, of 
" which there is fuch Store, that in afhort Time 
" he could have laded his Boat) with two Canoes, 
*' and, to the number of feventy or eighty Men, 
" came upon them, until with one Mufket-Shot 
" he (lew oneof their Men, and hurt more, who, 
" much amazed with the Report and Execu- 
" tion of aMufket, retired j yet, at his Coming 
" from thence, he fending his Pinnace-Boat on 
" Land to take in frelh Water, the Salvages were 
" laid in Ambulh amongft the Rocks, and (lew 
" him five Men ; one efcaped by Swimming. 
" It is much to be doubted but that the Salva- 
** ges did flay thofe Men, in Revenge for four of 
" their great Canoes he took off the Land 
*' from this People, whereof he reftored but 
" two back again. " 

Mr. Pricket"* s Account of the Difcovery of 
this Ifland is, that, when Mr. Hudfon " had left 
" Nottingham, to the North- Eaff, they fell into 
" a Rippling or Overfall of a Current, which, 
*' at the firff, fays Mr. Pricket, we took to be a 
" Shoal, but, the Lead being call, we had no 
" Ground ; on we pafTed flill in Sight of the 
'' South Shore, until we raifed Land lying from 

* North-V/eft, Fox. P. ng. 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Paffage. 65 

^* the Main, fome two Leagues -, ^ our Mafter Auguft. 
*=' took this to be part of the Main of the North 
" Land, but it was an Ifland, the North-Side 
" ftretching out to the Weft, more than the 
" South. This Ifland hath a very fair Head to 
*' the Eaft, and which our Mafter named 
*« Diggsh Cape, the Land on the South Side, 
" now falling away to the South, makes another 
*' Cape or Head-land, which our Mafter named 
" IVolJienholme Cape. ' * And in this Streight (now 
called Sondes Inlet) at the Mouth with a 1 00 
Fathom of Line out, Hudfon found no Ground. 

^ Sir John Woljlenholme, after whom Mr. Hud- 
fon named the Cape, is mentioned by Captain 
Fox to have been for eight Voyages, the prin- 
cipal Adventurer in the Stock (and Treafurer) 
fupplying the Stock Adventure, when the Stock 
came flowly in •, and, if he had been wanting in 
this Affiftance, moft of thofe Difcoveries would 
never have been attempted. 

The Boat went Afhore, fays Mr. Pricket, " to 
'* this Ifland Cape, oxDigg5''s IJland; but to it 
" we came on the North Side, and up we got 
" from one Rock to another, until we came unto 
*' the higheft of that Part, here we found fome 
" plain Ground and faw fome Deer; at fir ft 
" four or five, and after a dozen or fixteen in a 
" Herd, but could not come nigh them within 
" Mufl^et-Shot. 

2 FurchaJe'iPil, Lib. iii. Chap. 17. P. 6oo, ^ Nonh-Weft 
Fox. P. 2z6. 

K " Thus 


'A Voyage for the 


" * Thus going from ©ne Place to another, 
we faw to the Weft of us a high Hill above 
all the reft, it being nigh us, but it proved 
further off" than we made Account ; for when 
we came to it, the Land was fo fteep on the 
Eaft and North-Eail Parts that we could not 
get unto it. To the South- Weft we faw that 
we might, and towards that Part we went 
along by the Side of a great Pond of Water 
which lieth under the Eaft Side of this Hill, 
and there runneth out of it a Stream of Water, 
as much as would drive an overftiot Mill, 
which falleth down from a high Cliff into the 
Sea on the South Side. In this Place great 
Store of Fowl breed, and there is the beft 
Grafs I had feen lince we came from England^ ^ 
Here we found Sorrel, and that which we call 
Scurvy-Grafs, in great Abundance. Pafling 
along we faw fome round Hills of Stone like 
Grafs-Cocks, which at the firft I took to be 
the Work of fome Chriftian ; we pafled by 
them until we came to the South Side of the 
Hill, then went unto them, and there found 
more •, and, being nigh them, I turned off 
the uppermoft Stone, and found it hollow 

a Purchafe's Pi/. Lib. iii. P. l6o 

h Preferable to what they had feen at the Orkneys, Far'r- 
IJland, or Iceland, all which Places they touched at, and 
landed no where in the Streights but upon one of the Ifles of 
Qod'i Mei-cfy which Mr. Hudfin fo named. That is dsfcribed 
as barren Land, having nothing thereon but Water- Plaflies, 
snd torn P.ocks, as though it had been fubjedt to Earth- 

«* within 

Difcovery efa North-Weji Pajfage, ty 

«' within, and full of Fowl hanged by their Auguft. 
<« Necks. Our Mafter (in the mean time) came 
«* in between the two Lands, iand lliot off fome 
** Pieces to call us Aboard, for it was a Fog > 
*' we came Aboard and told him what we had 
" feen, and perfuaded him to llay a Day or two 
*« in the Place; telling him what Refrefliing 
*' might there be had, but by no Means would « 
*' he ftay, who was not pleafed with the Motion.'^ 

From the Name of Biggs given by Hudfon to 
a Cape, Diggs is now become the Name of a 
Parcel of Iflands which lie near both to Weft- 
ward and Southward of fuch Ifland to which be- 
longs the Cape, and which Iflands were formerly 
called Hackluyt*s Iflands, but they are all com- 
prehended under the Name of Diggs*^ Iflands, 
which, as well as the Cape, Mr. Hudfon in 
pafllng Southward left Weft of him. The La- 
titude of the Cape is 62. 42, Longitude 71. 45. 

The Willocks which are here in great Quan- 
tities, and feen continually up theStreights, are dif-* 
ficult to kill with fmall Shot except on the Head ; 
and Shooting them is a conftant Diverfion in fine 
Weather, but for Diverfion only, for they are 
feldom or ever eat even by the Seamen ; if you 
fhoot one of thefe the others will fwim by it, in- 
fenfible of their own Dangef , and of what hath 
happened to the other, giving you Opportunity 
to repeat your Fire. 

K t Biggs'% 

65 '-^Voyage for the 

Auguft, Diggs^s Ifles are the Termination of Hudfon\ 
Streights to the South- Weft ward, andj as Hud- 
Jon's Streights is a Part of great Account in the 
Voyage, it may not be improper to attempt to 
give the Reader a further Idea of thefe Streights 
than can be colleded from what hath been already 
faid. It is a Channel of unequal Breadths, both 
whofe Shores are bounded by high, ragged, 
mountainous Rocks, having Snow almoft at all 
Times lying on them, and no Wood, Grafs, or 
Earth to be feen on the Parts next the Water. 
In fome Hollows or Vallyes within Land, there 
is a Ihallow Soil^ producing Scurvy-Grafs, Sor- 
rel and other fmall Herbs with Grafs, and Mofs, 
but no Wood, Underwood, or any kind of 
Shrub ; and in fuch Valleys or Hollows, there 
are generally Ponds which are formed from the 
Waters of the melted Snow. ^ Captain Fox calls 
both Shores the Irremarkable Land : '* I was 
" (fays he) in Latitude 6i^. 57". and ftood in 
** clofe to this Irremarkable Shore, and fo all the 
" Land within the Streight may be called, for 
* ' it is all flioaring or defcending from the highelt 
*' Mountains to the Sea. " 

At both Ends of thefe Streights are iflands, as 
thofe of Refohition and Button''^ to tlie Eaftward. 
To tlie Weft ward Salijhiiry and Nottingham^ and 
more Wefterly than thofe is Diggs^s Ille. There 
are marly Ifiands along both Shores, from one 

aNorih-Wefl, fw P. 189. 


t^itan .t%TnttttK 




6? '^Voyage for the 

Auguft. Diggs^s Ifles are the Termination of Hudfon's 
Streights to the South- Weft ward, and^ as Hud- 
fon's Streights is a Part of great Account in the 
Voyage, it may not be improper to attempt to 
give the Reader a further Idea of thefe Streights 
than can be coUeded from what hath been already 
faid. It is a Channel of unequal Breadths, both 
whofe Shores are bounded by high, ragged, 
mountainous Rocks, having Snow almoft at all 
Times lying on them, and no Wood, Grafs, or 
Earth to be feen on the Parts next the Water. 
In fome Hollows or Valiyes within Land, there 
is a fhallow Soil^ producing Scurvy-Grafs, Sor- 
rel and other fmail Herbs with Grafs, and Mofs, 
but no Wood, Underwood, or any kind of 
Shrub j and in fuch Valleys or Hollows, there 
are generally Ponds which are formed from the 
Waters of the melted Snow. ^ Captain Fox calls 
both Shores the Irremarkable Land: '* I was 
** (fays he) in Latitude 6i^. 57". and flood in 
*« clofe to this Irremarkable Shore, and fo all the 
" Land within the Streight may be called, for 
* * it is all fiioaring or defccnding from the highell: 
*' Mountains to the Sea. " 

At both Ends of thefe Streights are Iflands, as 
thofe of Refolution and Button^ s to the Eaftward^ 
To tl^.e Weftward Salijhury and Nottingham, and 
more Weftcrly than thofe is Diggs's Ille. There 
are mahy Ifiands along both Shores, from one 

aNorih-Wcfl, Fc.x P. 189. 



of ._ 

(HuiteoN's Straits' 

sj^-B A Y,. 

Acq- fling- to tbe Difcoveries 

■^ f IJ43- 



Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage, 69 

End of the Streights to the other, the moft re- Auguft. 
markable of which upon the South Shore at pre- 
fent known are Grafs-IJland^ and the Ifland of 
Prince Charles. On the North Side, the upper 
Salvage Ides, the IQand of I'erra Nivea (which 
appears itfelf like a Main, having Iflands before 
it) and the lower Salvage Ifles. 

As the Shores of the Streights are barren and 
affording noTrade for want of Inhabitants, (itbe- 
ino; imoofible for them to fubfift there for a Con- 
tinuance, and are only frequented in the Summer 
by xhtEJkemaux who come to hunt and Filh) thefe 
Shores have therefore been feldom touched at by 
any Ships in their PafTage up the Streights, and 
no Searches made Inland fo as to attain a certain 
Account as to either of them. As to the North 
Shore, whether it is compofed of one or more 
Iflapr' to the South Shore, whether it is 

a Pa ; lie main Land of America or an Ifland. 

The North Shore of Hudfon^s Streights is fur- 
rounded by Sea, a Namelefs Streight (which 
Streight joins '^ixhBaff'yne's Bay J is to the Weft- 
ward. Baffyne'sB^Y with a Communication which 
it hath with Streights Davis is to the Northward, 
' Davis^s Streights is to the Eaftward, and Hud- 
fon\ Streights to the Southward, fo making an 
Ifland which is called Jamesh Ifle : Others fup- 
pofe there are three Iflands ; that on the North- 
Weft being cut through by Cumberland Bay, 
which is thought to communicate mi\\Baffyne\.^ ^ y 


i^^^*'* X 

yo ./f V o y A G E for the 

Auguft. Bay to the North, The Ifle on the South-Eaf^ 
is faid to be feparated from that on the South- 
Weft by White Bear Bay, which is thought 
to run into Cumberland Bay. The Ifle on the 
North-Weft is then named Cumberland IJland i 
that on the South-Eaft the Ifland of Good For- 
tune > that on the South- Weft, Jameses Ifland. 

The South Shore which was named New- 
Britain by Mr. Hudfon, but is now moftly known 
by the Name of the Labrador Shore, and 'Terra 
CorterealiSy hath feveral Inlets along the Coaft, 
the principal of which are defcribed to be in a 
deep Bay, which is on the South Shore imme- 
diately after entering the Streights •, by which 
Inlets, it hath always been imagined, there is a 
nearer Communication with Hudfon\ Bay than by 
HudfotCs Streights-, and what adds more Proba- 
bility than there formerly was to this, is a new 
difcovered Sea on the Weftern Side of this Labra-* 
dor Shore, which is open to Hudfon'^s Bay. 
But fuppofe there v/as a Communication found 
between this Bay, which is to the Southward, im- 
mediately after entering //z^4/"^;?'s Streights, and 
Hudfon's Bay •, and fo a much nearer Cut than 
by Hudfon\ Streights j yet it is probable from the 
great Quantity of Ice which fettles down in this 
Bay to the Southward, that a Pafi^age that Way 
would be both more hazardous, and dilatory, than 
by the Way of Hudfon''s Streights. From their 
Situation it is alfo fuppofed, that there may be a 
CoiVimunicatioii between i\ui Inlet in Lat. s^' 


"Difcovery of aNorth-WeJlFafjage. 7* 

"which is to the Eaftward of this Shore from the AuguS, 
Atlantick Ocean, and was difcovered by Captain 
Davis in the Year 1586 (which he failed ten 
Leagues up two Leagues broad, very fair 
Woods on both Sides) and this new difcovered 
Sea to the Weftward of this Shore opening 
to Hudfon's Bay, which would make another 
Paflage into it. 

On both Shores there are a Number of Capes, 
which it is equally as difficult to affix the Names 
to, as to many of the Iflands i and, if done, 
would be of little Ufe to the Navigator, nor be 
fuch a Satisfaction as the Curious feek after. 

The Entrance into HudforCs, Streights is to the 
Southward of the Ifles of Refolution in Latitude 
61°. 25''. Longitude 64°. 'W. between that and 
Cape Chidley, which Cape is a Point of the South 
Main, within a Parcel of Iflands called Button's 
liles, and formerly Chidley Ifles ; Button's Ifles 
nominated from Sir Thomas Button^ he having 
pafTed between them and the Main in his PalTage 
Home. The Entrance is generally computed at 
about thirteen Leagues ; Refolution which lies 
N. byE. is about fix Leagues, and between jR^- 
folution and the Land to the Northward in the 
narroweft Part is about eight Miles, which is 
called Lumley\ Inlet, after Lord Lumley^ a Pro- 
moter of thefe Expeditions, and of whom Cap- 
tain Fox fays, that, he inquiring at Hartlepool m 
the Bifhoprick of Durham:, at whofe Charge 


*jf "^Voyage for the 

Auguft. their Pier was built, an old Man anfwered, 
Marrye at my good L^^^^Lumley's, ivhofe Soul 
was in Heaveri, before bis Bones were cold. This 
Inlet communicaL; -g with the Sea on the Weftern 
Part of R.efohitiony which is now called Mijiake 
Bay, is iuppofed to have a Branch of it which runs 
at the Bacli of the Terra Nivea, and comes into 
the Streights by the North Bay. 

From Refolution to Diggs's Ifle, the computed 
Diftance \s one hundred and forty Leagues •, from 
Refoluitc?i to the upper Salvage Ifles fixty Leagues, 
from the xx'^-^tx Salvages to CdpeCharles fixty more, 
and from CapeC^/3r/^jto/)/^^j'&Ifles 20 Leagues ; 
the Streight lies W. N. W. and E. S. E. at its firft 
Entrance is the greateft Breadth, by Reafon of a 
great Bay to the Southward ; then it narrows from 
the upper Salvages to Cape Charles, the Width be- 
tween the twoShores not exceeding fifteenLeagues. 
AtCzpt Charles the Streight widens, and between 
CapeDz^^J and theNorthMain it is twentyLeagues 
The Soundings at the Entrance are two hundred 
Fathom, and the ordinary Depths in the Middle 
of the Streights are one hundred and twenty Fa- 
thom, but the Soundings decreafe towards the 
Shores and IQands, at very various Depths. 

Hudfott's Streights, andD^wj's Streights, are 
Drains by which the Land Waters (the Pro- 
duce of the melting Snow) empty themfelves 
into the Ocean, at fuch Times occafioning ex- 
traordinary Currents, into which the Ice fets, 


Difcovery of a North-Weji P off age. 73 

after being loofened by the Thaw in the Rivers, Auguft. 
on the Shoal Shores, and out of the infinite 
Number of fmall Bays, which are in all thofe 
Parts, and floated out of fuch Rivers, Bays, and 
off fuch Shores ; and this Ice, fo fetting forward 
for the Ocean with thefe Currents, is what ob- 
ftru<5ls the PafTage up the Streights for the firlt 
Summer Months ; not Ice generated in the 
Streights themfelves, which, only the Tide con- 
fidered, would be impoffible. So it commonly 
happens that in the Month of September, in 
pafiing the Streights you fee little or no Ice, the 
Ice of that Year being either melted or gone into 
the Ocean -, and there being no Ice to come until 
the next Spring : Therefore it is queifioned by 
fome, whether it would not be better to pafs the 
Streights the latter End of Aprih or early in 
May, as the Spring would be then juft begun to 
the Southward, and confequently not to the 
Northward, for which Reafon lefs Ice would be 
afloat, and therefore lefs to hinder the PafTage 
up the Streights. What is practifed by the Hud- 
fon Bay Ships is no Precedent in the Cafe 5 they 
going at a Time when it is moil fuitable with 
refpeft to their Trade, which is not in before the 
latter End of June, and their Cargoes not ready 
until July •, none of the Difcoverers (excepting 
Mr. Bylot) ever entered the Streights until June, 
Mr, Bylot entered them the 17th of May, at ^ 
which Time he was forced to return on account 
L of 

•j/^ -^Voyage f(yr the 

Aiiguft. of the Ice \ not entering the Streights again until 
the twenty-ninth of tht fame Month. 

Upon the Land are Land Animals, as Bears, 
Foxes, Deer, Wolves ; alfo Fowl, as Partridge. 
No Filli have been ever catched in the Water of 
the Streights, but it is frequented by white Bears, 
and a great Number of Seals, which are fome- 
times in the Water, atothfer times upon the Shore 
or upon Pieces of the Ice. There are alfo Sea 
' Unicorns, fome of them were feen by Captain 
¥ox^ and their Horns are to be bought fome- 
times of the EJkemaux. A Whale before this 
t- Voyage, hath never been feen twenty Leagues 
up the Streights. There is plenty of Water 
Fowl, fuch as Willocks, Sea Pigeons, and Gulls. 

In the pafilng this Streight the North Shore is 
kept to by all Ships, as being cleareft of Ice, 
the Currents Ihooting over to the South and Eaft- 
ward, attraded by a Bay at the Back of Cape 
Charles^ and of a much larger Bay mentioned to 
the Weft ward and Southward of the Entrance of 
this Streight. When they arrive at the Length 
of Cape Charles, they ufually ftand over to the 
Southward, as being the neareftCourfe to go into 
Hudfon''s Streights ; not that the Streight is not 
equally Navigable between Salifiury and Notting- 
ham, and the North Main, as it is to the South- 
ward. There may be alfo another Reafon, befides 
the Nearnefs, for the going to the Southward 
of thefe Iflands, though that is Reafon fufficient, 


Difcovery of a North -Weft Pajfage. js 

which is that the Channel to the Northward of Auguft. 
Nottingham lies fairer to receive the Ice that fliall 
come down the Namekfs Streight and fronm Baf- 
fyne^s Bay, than the Channel to the Southward 
does. The Ships bound for the Bay may alfo go 
to the Southward of thefe Iflands as they are more 
in the Tide's Way which goes into Hudfm''sBa.y 
than they would be in going to the Northward 
of fuch Iflands. 

The Tides in thefe Streights fiowEaftward and 
ebb Weft ward, and the Flood is regular in its 
Progrefs up them, or in thefe Streights the Tide 
flows fooner or later at the feveral Places as they 
refpeftively lie to the Eaftward, orWeftward the 
one of the other, at thofe to the Eaftward as being 
nearer the Entrance fooner, at thofe to the Weft- 
ward proportionably later. Mr. Baffyne in his Ac- 
count obferves, that ^ an E. S. E. Moon makes 
a full Sea at Refclution at half an Hour paft- feven 
on the Change Day. That the Water rifes and 
falls near four Fathoms. ^ He tells us alfo that, at 
th^Salvage Ifles, a South-Eaft Moon four Degrees 
Eaft makes a full Sea, flowing almoft as much 
Water, as at Refolution^ and the Tide comes 
from the Eaftward. ^ Captain Hazvbridge gives 
an Account, that at a little Ifland near Cape 
Charles^ in a Bay of fuch Ifland, he found it 
flowed twenty-one Feet, a S. E. Moon making 
a full Sea. Sending fome Men in a Boat to row 

» North Weft, Fox, P. ig8. " 140. * P. 167. 

L 2 about 

7^ A V OY AG IE for the 

^'Jguft. . about the Ifland, when it bore S. E. of them, 
it had a ftrong fet Tide from E. '^ At Notting- 
ham Mr. Baffyne fays, upon the Change Day it 
flows ten and a half, but no Height of the Tide 
is mentioned. ^ At Cape Diggs, where Mr. Hud- 
Jon fent his Men Afhore, by his own Memoran- 
dum the Tide of Flood came from the North, 
flowing by the Shore five Fathoms. Should that 
Suppofition be true, that the North Shore of the 
Streights is divided into three Iflands, then it is 
to be fuppofed that the Streights between fuch 
Iflands have alfo their Tides as well as Hudfon's 
Streights, and that they vent fuch Tides, Part 
into Hud] on'' % Streights, and other Parts into 
the Namelefs Strcight and Baffyne'' s'^'^y^ and re- 
ceive the Tides again from, thence upon their 
Return. The Tide alfo comes into Hudfon*s 
Streights by Mijiake Bay ; and by the North 
Bay (if Terra Nivea is an Ifland) as well as it 
does by Rejolution. 

After paffing the Streights to the Weft ward, 
one Shore of the Streights trends away North, 
and is the Flaftern Shore of a Namelefs Streight } 
the other Shore trends away Southward, and is 
the Eaftern Shore of Hudfon's Bay. Whither we 
are now purfuing our Voyage with fqually Wea- 
ther at N. E. with fome Rain ; at eleven at Night 
of Auguft the firft, and afterwards calm Weather ; 
the calm Weather continued until near four in 

North-Weft, tax. ^ P. 145. c p. 75. 


Difco'very of a North-Weft Pajfage. 77 

the Morning of Auguji the fecond, and hazy ; then Auguft. 
a gentle Wind at W. but at half an Hour after 
five a fudden Squall of Wind at the fanne Point ; 
afterwards blowing frefh with Sleet and Rain 
until ten, during which Time it was very cold s 
after ten dry Weather till near twelve, then the 
Wind fuddenly changed to N. E. and fell calm 
from blowing frefh before. We had a large 
Swell from the Weft ward all the Afternoon, 
which was cloudy until five and cold •, the Wind 
having changed at two to the N. moderate 
at five in the Evening until near eight, then 
fqually, cloudy until twelve, then hazy with 
Squalls of Wind, and, at two the Morning of 
^«g-«/? the third, the Wind N. N. W. with Rain; ^d. 
at half an Hour after two Snow, very cold. Squalls 
lefs and the Snow ceafed towards four, cloudy and 
frefh Gales to ten, then Snow •, towards eleven 
fair. Wind lefs, and at N. fince fix, the Wea- 
ther alfo much warmer, the Sun breaking out at 
Times. Soon after faw ManfePs Ifie from the 
Deck, bearing S. diftant about {^Ytn Leagues, 
which Ifland was fo named by Sir Thomas Button 
after Sir Robert Manfeh, Mr. Hudfon never fee- 
ing it. According to Captain James^ whofe 
People were Afhore there, it is a low Ifland, little 
higher then a dry Sand- bank, hath Ponds upon 
it of frefh Water, but no Grafs ; and is entirely 
barren. This Part of the Ifland which we faw 
at four, and alfo at fix, appeared to us as a white 
fandy Beach, with a low flat Shore within it, 
and this Ifland at fix bore off us from the S. S. W. 


^8 ./f V o Y A G E for the 

Auguft. to the S. S. E. diftant about ten Miles, and lies 
in the direft Way, divideing the Entrance into 
the Bay into two Channels, both which are na- 
vigable. The Ifland is about twenty Leagues 
long and three broad, the North End of it is 
thirteen Leagues W. by S. by true Compafs from 
Cape Diggs, the North End lies in Lat. 62. 40. 
and Longitude 79^. 5 W. The Afternoon was 
cloudy with Sun-lhine, the Evening pleafant 
but cold, and the frefh Gale continuing at W. 
N. W. at ten cloudy with fome Rain, afterwards 
clear, then cloudy and clofe Weather until eight 

4ih. in the Morning of Jugulf the fourth, then Sun- 

fhine with a moderate Gale, cloudy again to- 
wards Noon, but in the Afternoon a clear Sky 
and alfo in the Evening. 

It was obfervable that the Sea had been To-day, 
and Yefterday, of a clearer and brighter Colour, 
than it had been for fome Time before j at ten 
there was a ftrong fetid Smell from theW^indward, 
and, at half an Hour after five. Captain Moor 
then ahead wore Ship, foon afterwards we per- 
ceived a dead Whale floating Belly upwards, the 
Skin very much tore by the Birds, and a Willock 
then on him which kept there until fhot. It be- 
ing moderate Weather, the fmall Boat was im- 
I mediately lowered, Captain Moor alfo fent his, 

5 and afterwards with the Affiftance of Captain 

\ Maoris Pinnace (all the Boats being made faft 

: to the Whale j they towed it alongfide the Dohbs : 

The Whale was about five and forty Feet in 


Bifcovery of a North-Weft Paffage, 79 

Length, his Jaw-Bone eight Feet. Great Part Auguft, 
of the Fins were dropped off, the Whale being 
much putrefied ; but the renaaining Fin was got 
and almoft two Calks of Blubber. From the 
Harpoon which was in the Whale, it may be 
fuppofed to have been killed by the EJkemaux, 
whofe Harpoons are of Bone, about three Inches 
long, double-forked at one End as a Snakes 
Tongue, and a finglc Fork on one Side above 
the double Fork j there is a Hole at the other End 
of the Bone, in which they put a Staff to ftrike 
with •, the Staff being loofe, parts from the Har- 
poon as foon as it is entered ; to the Harpoon they 
fallen a Thong of Sea-Horfe-Hide of a Finger's 
Breadth, and about forty Yards in Length or 
more, to which thong they tie a Seal Skin 
blowed up like a Bladder, which not only fhews 
where the Filli is, but alfo greatly fateigues it/ 
The Thong here was cut off from the Harpoon 
excepting a fmall Piece, and the Harpoon was 
got out with fome Difficulty, being quite within 
the Fat and entering the Flelh. It fell cairn 
foon after that the Whale was alongfide, they 
continued to work on it till about nine, and at 
ten o'clock there was a Breeze of Wind but 
contrary, as it had been fome Days before i the 
Wind was now N. W. by W. and thefe De- 
lays from the Wind, after having been fo long 
detained in the Ice, were a great Check to the 
Hopes we had entertained with refped to what 
we ihould do that Seafon, 


8o -^Voyage for the 

Auguft. Such Weather, as was on Auguft the fourth, 

continued the Morning, Afternoon, and to Mid- 

5th. night of Auguft the fifth, the Wind at four in 

Morning N. at Noon N. W. and in the Even- 
ing W. the Weather alfo quite warm. At eight 
in the Morning the Sea appeared of a lightifh and 
Green Colour, but looked at nine, as if a whitifh 
Mud was mixed with it, and at ten quite 
changed to a dirty white Colour with many- 
Weeds fwimming in it ; . 

gjj^ The Morning of the of Sixth Auguft was foggy 

and hazy until three, then cloudy with Fog Banks 
in the Horizon, warm and a little Wind at 
S. W, at five : At half an Hour after five a 
Breeze of Wind, at S. W. the fame Weather un- 
til fix, excepting a fenfible Alteration, as to its 
becoming colder, then clear •, cloudy from eight 
to ten, alfo hazy with Wind S. At half an Hour 
after ten S. S. E. with Rain, which lafted until 
two in the Afternoon, when we imagined we 
fawLand, but, having a thick Horizon, could not 
be certain ; cloudy until four, but dry Weather. 
cold and raw, hazy until fix, then Sun-Ihine •, we 
altered our Courfe fromN. N. W. to N. by W. 
cloudy at Ten with a frefh Gale and fair, mifling 
a Sight of Gary* s Swans Nell, and the Capes to 
Ealtward, and Weftward, as Cape Pembroke 2Lnd 
Cape Southampton^ which the Hudfon's Bay Ships, 
it being out of their Courfe, ftldom fall in with, 
and therefore are little known. 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajage. 8i 

"" The Morning of Jti^uji the feventh was Aaguft. 

7 th. 

cloudy until nine, then Sunlhine, and afterwards 
a pleafant Day, and the Weather warm, having 
at ten altered our Courfe to N. W. lefs Wind 
at Noon, and in the Afternoon, but chang- 
ing from N. E. to W. S. W. Sounding at fix 
in the Evening there were 1 1 3 Fathoms, light 
ouzy Mud -, the fame kind of Ground as is al- 
moft all over the Bay. The Night clear and 
Star- Light. 

The Morning of the eighth cloudy, with 8ch. 
fmall Wind at W. by S. and w^arm, towards 
Noon Sun-ihine Latitude 61. 58. Longitude 
88. 37. W. fo we were well over to the Weftern 
Side of the Bay i and found a very fenfible Dif- 

a As to Cary s-Swans NeJ}^ with Pembroke , and South' 
hampton, the two Capes, one to the Eaftward, and the 
other to the Weftward of Cary's-Swans Neji^ Captain 
Fox^ in his Account, P. 119, fays Sir Thomas Button 
pafled from Sir. Dudley Diggs's I/7e, to a Cape on the 
North Side of his Bay's Entrance, which he named 
Cary's-Swans NeJ}^ (and his Bay, or Button's Bay 
is properly all that Part of Hudfonh Bay, which is 

more Northward than Diggs'e iflands.) Again 

Captain Fox, P. 198, I think fo named (fpeaking of 
Manfel's Ifle) by Sir Thomas Button, as aifo Cape Pem- 
broke, Southampton, and Cory's Swans Nejl, thelaftmoft 
eminent of the three. Again P. 200, made faft to 
the Ice, a reafonable Diftance from the low Ifland, as 
it feemed, for he thought he could fee both Ends.— — 
The Land lay Eaft and Weft, hut he could not fully fay 
it was an Ifland, for it lay like a Ridge, or, to fimily 
it, like to the Retyres, in the Mouth of the River of 
Seine in Normandy. Upon the 21ft of ^uly^ he made 

M from 

82 A Vo Y A G E for the 

AugulL ference, as to Cold, with refpcd to what we had 
felt in the Streights, or before entering of them •, 
the Afternoon was cloudy, and Wind to E. N. E. 
though butfmall, at ten to N. N. W. ftill cloudy. 
The Soundings at Noon were 90 Fathoms foft 
ouzy Ground. Saw a Plover To-day v/hich was 
the firft we had feen. 


from the Ice, to ftand to the Land ; fent his Boat 
Aftiore to try the Tide, and concludes, " AfTuredly this 
** was Cnry's-Szuans Ne/i^ for, both from E a ft to Weft 
*' Ends, it ftretcheth to the North ; our Men chas'd 
" Swans on Shore, but got none ; they fay there is 
*' Ear.;h, fcrange Mofs, Qijagmires and Water-plafties. 
*' At 4 o'clock i took Leave, and flood from 6 Fathoms 
*' into 30, lofing Sight thereof; and from thence I 
*' flood to the Weftv/ard, with a North-Weft Wind, 
*' clofe hailed ; leaving both the Cape and Ice behind 
" me". — P. 228. 229, — upon his Return Captain Fox 
fays, " Being at Noon (September 7th) in Lat. 61. 15. 
«' the depth go Fathoms ; all this Day with an E. S. E, 
" Wind, I ftood N. E. by N. clofe hailed, 13 
*' Leagues ; this Night, I faw the Land by my Account 
" about Gary's -Sivans Neji^ from whence I departed 
*' the 2ift of yi/ly. — I think, if I had not come forth 
*' upon the Deck, as I diJ, v/e had run Aftiore upon 
^' this low Land; I caufed pieftntly to tack about, and 
'^' we ftood oft^ again into 70 Fathoms j we had but 
** 14, prefently after we had tacked. 

" We were in 62. 21. the Land true North 6 Miles 
♦' otT; I found it tJ be Cape Pembroke, 2 or 3 Leagues 
*' diftant N. E. from Carys Swans Ne/I ; with this S. 
'* E. Wind, 1 was fain to ply up for Sea Horfe Point. 
*' This Land is ftony, and a good bold Shore; I ftood 
** off into 90, and in again into 13 Fathoms, and fome- 
*' times Icfs. By this (that is the 9th) we have plied 
** up another Cape, the Deep or Vv'hoie Bay, betwixt 
«' the fame and Cape Pembroke^ maketh the E. Side 
**• thereof lie jitrar S. ana by E, 1 was in 7 Fathonis 


DiJ cover y of a North -JVeJi Pajfage, ^^ 

At two in the Morning of the ninth, the Wind Auguft. 
was round to N. N. E. and frefh, cloudy until ^"^', then fair and clear ; the Wind N. W. by N. 
Latitude 62. 13. Longitude 89. s^' Soundings 
at Noon foft Ouzy Ground, 95. Fathom. The 
Afternoon cloudy until two, then clear with 
Sun-fhine, the Evening pleafant, at Night fine 


*' in the Bay. — When I doubled this Cape, the Land 
** flretched to the N. In dutiful Remembrance I named 
** it Cape Linfey \ the L:\nd beyond Jay N, E. — Fox 
'* in his Account of Sir Thomas Button s^ Vovage, P. 133. 
** He (Sir Thomas Button) came to 43. Fathom^. 
*' which Shoaling was upon the North Part of the 
*' Ifland he watered upon (which was Alanfel's Ifle) and 
*' this Ifland, and the faid Cape, Cape Pemhro.^e^ where 
*' his Boat was at the 14th Day, lie S. S. E. k Eafter- 
*' ly and N. N. W. \ Northerly, about ten Leagues 
*' between both. 

Captain James's Voyage for the Difcovertng a PaJJage 
*' to the South Sea, Augtijl: the iQch, we ontinued our 
** Courfe between the N. N. E. and the N. by E. and 
" by Noon were in Lat. 61. 7. fome twelve Leagues 
*' off the Shore, I ordered the Malter, to fhape his 
" Courfe N. E. to Irolc to that Place betwixt Car-ys- 
" Swans Neji and Ne ultra. The 2fft', we were in 
** Lat. 61. 45. — the 21ft, the Water flioal'd, fo that 
" we did make Account, that we approached the Land, 
*' but, at Noon, the Wind came up at N. E. direftly 
*' oppoftte. We loofed as near in as we could, and as it 
*' enlarged we came to (tand E. and E. by N. the 2 2d, 
" we fell v/ith the Land to \^^^\\naxA o'i Cary''s-Swans- 
" iV?/?, where we had 40 Fathoms, thrte Leagues off; 
*' we ftood in v/ithin a League of the Shore, into 15 
*•' Fathoms, and feeing the Land to the Southward of us, 
" we compaffed about it, it being Gary s-Svoans Neji^ 
*' v/hich is in Lat. 62. all the 23d, we failed N. £. 
*' aad for the moft Part in Sight of Land. 

M 2 Captain 

A Voyage for the 

clear "Weather ; this Day, and the Day before, 
a great Quantity of Sea- weed paffed us, and the 
Sea though clear, appearing alfo of a dark green 
Colour, and was very Frothy, which was fup- 
pofed to be an Inltance of there being no Ice in 
thofe Parts. 

loth. The Morning of the tenth was fine and clear, 

very pleafant, and produced the moft delightful 
Day we had feen fince we left the Orkneys^ though 
a frelh Gale at W. N. W. our Latitude 63. 22. 
Longitude, 91. 18. W. Soundings 70 Fathoms. 
At three faw the Land N. W. Northerly to the 
N. E. by E. and at fix the Wefternmoft Point in 
Sight, N. the Eafternmoft E. Northerly, 

Captain Fox in his Account of Sir Thomas Button's 
" Expedition P. 128. zs io Cz^t Southampton, Auguji 
" 5th, at two in the Morning, he ftands two 
*' Leagues N. E. and until Noon feven Leagues S. S. 
*' W. and paft four that Morning he faw Land about 
" two Leagues off, bearing from E. to S. he writeth 
" that the Sight of it grieved him much, fo that now 
" he madehimfelf afTured of that which he did but 
*♦, doubt before; which was that they join to the Ea- 
*' ftern Part of the Bay, from whence he came ; but 
*' I do other wife believe. 

" All the Afternoon, he ftood along the Shore, 
*' edging into 7 Fathoms, and crofs a Race which fet 
*' N. E. and S. W. and continued about half a Glafs ; 
" at four o'clock the N. VV. Point of the Land did 
*' bear from him N. W. by N, about a Mile of; then 
** fleering within lefs than one Mile of this Cape Land, 
*' for {o it was, and a fair one of a low one as ever he 
*' faw, you {hall have 9 to 10 Fathom, and fliall open 
*' a very fafe Bay. The Eallern Land thereof will bear 
«' from you E. by N. 4 Leagues off. 


Difcovery of a North-Weft P off age, 85 

Teeming to be a Bay with Iflands at the Bottom, Auguft. 
and Inlets, a plain level Shore (but no Judg- 
ment could be formed, the Haze being over it) 
and was what Sir 'Thomas Button had named 
Hope^s Advance. Upon Sounding, there was 
but 35 Fathom and Rocky Ground. It was 
thought beft to ftand out all Night with the Ships, 
and return in the Morning. The Night was 
clear, fo to two in the Morning of the eleventh, i uh. 
when the Wind was W. S. W. at feven o* Clock 
it was hazy, and at eight a thick Fog which con- 
tinued until Noon, then a ftrong Wind at S, W. 
Latitude 6'^. 22. Longitude 92. i8. W. Wind 
at two W. N. W. caufing it to be cold mo- 
derating fometimes, and then frefhening. The 
Morning of the tewlfth, at four the Wind came izrh. 
to N. by E. altering the Weather from cold to 
warm, the Wind not abated until ten, thenN. by 
W. Latitude 62. 43. Longitude 92. 39. W. 
Soundings at Noon 75 Fathoms, Ouze with fome 
fmall Sand. The Afternoon clear Weather and 
moderate ; in the Evening being alfo clear, we 
faw the Land of Marble Ifland about five Leagues 
off, the Soundings were 70 Fathoms though fo 
near this liland. 

On the thirteenth in the Morning, pleafant 13th. 
Weather, Hood in for the Ifland, but the Wind 
became fmall, and it was almoft calm ; Captain 
Moor made a Signal to fpeak with Captain Smith, 
fending his Boat Aboard the California, in which 
Captain Smith went, fome little Time after the 


S6 ^Voyage for the 

Auguft. Boat was fent for the Officers, and Surgeon, who 
were Members of the Council, to hold a Coun- 
cil on Board the Dobhs. 

The Holding thefe Councils was inflituted by 
the Inftrudtions which the Captains had deli- 
vered to them in Writing, before their fetting 
out, and figned by the North-Weft Committee, 
which confifted of nine of the Subfcribers to this 
Undertaking, deputed by the reft for the Ma- 
nagement of it. Thefe Councils by fuch In- 
ftru6bions were to be compofed of the Captains 
of the two Ships, the Lieutenants, the Mates, 
the Surgeons, the Mineraiift or Draughts-man. 
If the Ships were feparated, then the Captain, 
Lieutenant, Mate, and Surgeon of each Ship 
refpedlively were to compofe a Council on Board 
fuch Ship. Thefe Councils were intended to be 
held in all difficult Cafes, or where Doubts might 
arife to confider on the moft prudent Method of 
proceeding to make out the Difcovcry, and to de- 
termine by a Majority what fhould then be done, 
and the Minority had a Right to enter their Ob- 
jedlions or Rcafons for not Affenting. 

The Council was held on Board the Dchhs, 
and an A6t of Council drawn up, the Purport 
of which was, " That on the eleventh Inftant, 
*' about Noon, we had fallen in with the Land 
" between the Latitude 64. 00. and 6-^. 20. N. 
*' where we intended to fearch the Coaft and try 
** the Tides, but were difappointed therein by 

" thick 

JDifcovery of a North-Wejl Vafjage, t'f 

" thick Weather, and hard Gales of Wind, fo Auguft. 
" that we could not attempt it a fecond Time 
*' this Seafon, with any hopes of Succefs, and 
" finding onrfelves in Sight of Brook Cobham 
*' which we judged to be a very favourable 
" Place to try the true Knowledge of the Tides, 
" we therefore refolved to fend thither the two 
" Long-Boats," the Lieutenant of each Ship 
was to have the Command of the Boat belonging 
to his refpedive Ship, and to fet out with all con- 
venient Expedition for the Weflern Part of the 
Ifland, there to determine from whence the Tide 
flowed, the Courfe, Height, Velocity of the Tide, 
and Time of high Water -, and if a Flood Tide 
came from the Weftward, and any Opening, they 
were to repair to that Place, to try the Tide 
there, if fafely they could •, they were to fearch 
for a fecure Harbour, Ihould it be neceflary to 
bring the Ships to an Anchor for a further Search. 
In cafe of extraordinary bad Weather the Boats 
were to repair Aboard, on Signals made, and 
Signals were fixed on for the Boats repairing 
Aboard, and for other Purpofes, which the 
Lieutenants were to obferve, and an Account of 
them was given in Writing for that Purpofe. 

It appears from Part of this Aft of Council, 
which mentions the Opening, the Tide from the 
Weftward, and the Harbouring, that there was 
a particular View therein, to the Difcoveries 
made by Lieutenant Rankin^ when with Captain 
Middle ton in 1742, Lieutenant Rankin having 


88 ^Voyage for the 

Auguft. difcovered a Cove S. W. of this Ifland, which, 
receiving its Appellation from him, is called 
RankirC% Cove, and the Ifland is promifcuoufly 
called Marble Ifland, or Brook Cobham, which 
Cove appeared to be a very good Harbour, he 
alfo difcovered that there was a fl:rong Tide of 
Flood fuddenly from W. N. W. round the N. W. 
End of the Ifland, and an Opening to the Wefl:- 
ward of the Ifland. 

About half an Hour after nine, purfuant to 
the Refult of the Council, the California's Long- 
Boat was ready, the fine Weather which had 
been all Day continuing, but the lefs acceptable 
by Reafon of there being fo little Wind : In the 
Long-Boat were the Lieutenant, the Clerk, fix 
Hands and a Boy ♦, the Long-Boat about feven 
Tun, rigged with Sloop Maft: and Sails, well 
provided with Provifion and all Neceflaries, and 
thofe in her well armed -, their Arms were a De- 
fence for them againfl: the EJkemaux, who alfo 
are in thofe Parts at this Seafon, though fome- 
what diff^erent from thofe on the Labrador Coafl, 
neither do they come from thence. They in 
the Boat alfo, by the Means of their Fire- Arms, 
could procure an additional Supply of frefli Pro- 
vifions to thofe which they already had, and of 
which there was a Sufficiency fliouldthe Boats be 
feparat ed from the Ships, to lafl: them as long a 
Timeas it would take them to get to Churchill 
Fadory, if they fliould be able to attain there. 


Difcovery of a North-JVeft Pajfage. 89 

Both Long-Boats being ready, they fet ofFj AuguiL 
but, it falhng calm, they returned each alongfide 
their refpeftive Ships. At twelve, there being a 
fmall Breeze of Wind, they fet off again, fleer- 
ing N.E. for the Ifland, being five Leagues 
off; from the Smallnefs of the Wind, we were 
obliged fometimes to ufe our Oars. Seeing a 
great Number of Seals, and of a larger Size than 
any we had feen before, remarkably grey with 
large Whilkers ; they came very near to the 
Boat, and were very fportive ; nor did we inter- 
rupt their Diverfion, not knowing how neceffary 
our Powder might be. 

This IQand which is about feven Leagues long, 
and three over in the broad eft Part, lying 
E. by S. and W. by N. the true bearing Va- 
riation allowed, was firft difcovered by Captain 
Fox to be an Ifland •, and by him called a White 
JJland, and named Break Cobham, then think- 
ing of the many Furtherances this Voyage recei- 
ved from that honourable Knight Sir John Brcok, 
who, together with Mr. Henry Briggs^ the Ma- 
thematical Profeflbr at Oxford^ were the firft that 
countenanced him in this Undertaking. It is 
now called Marble Ifland, from being moftly 
Marble, and appearing at a Diftance, as well as 
near, of a greyifli white Colour. This Ifland is 
low to the Eaftward, fo anfwering to the De- 
fcription which Captain Fox gives it, as to the 
Eaft Part where his Boat went Afliore, and where 
his Ship lay off of, but by the South-Eaft Point 

N of " 

go A Voyage for the 

Auguft. of the IQand, by the South, away to the South- 
Weflern-motl, it gradually afcends until it comes 
to be a high deep Point or Scrag of greyifli 
Stone, named by Scroggs^ Pitts Mount, with fomc 
large Spots of white near, much refembling 
Snow, and is occafioned by the Sediments of 
Marble Duft, worn off and lodged there by the 
Wafhing of the Rains and melted Snows. From 
this Mount it ftretches again away to the Weft- 
ward, uneven and hilly, and the South- Weftern- 
pioft Point is a bold high Land. 

We were at eight in the Morning about a Mile 
from the Ifland, hearing the Rut upon the Shore 
very plainly. The Eaftern Part about a League 
to the Eaftward of us, from thence we flood to 
the Weft ward in Search of Rankin'* s Cove, there 
being a Hollow in the Land about three Leagues 
off, v/e fuppofed that Hollow to be it. The 
Wind falling fmall, we were forced to ufe our 
Oars, not arriving off the Hollow before 
twelve i as we arrived nearer ; it appeared lefs 
hollow ; when oppofite. quite even, with no 
Opening, and large Breakers upon the Shore. 
We then ftood out to round a Headland, which 
formed a fmall Bay, but rowed with two 
Oars in half an Hour further, than we could be- 
fore with our four Oars in the Hour : This we 
plainly perceived, and attributed it to the Tide 
of Ebb out of Rankin s> Cove, which had been 
niiffed, and our being fo delayed from eight to 
twelve, to the Tide of Flood then coming on. 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pafag^, 91 

We proceeded to (land out from the Shore Anguft. 
near two Miles, opening two other Points of 
the Land to the Weftward, we had there in View 
broken Lands, a bluff Point of main Land* 
which was N. W. by W^W. Land alfo W. 
N. W. and the Weftern-moft Land in Sight, a 
Land which feemed (but looked to be low) like 
the Head of a Main-Land, between this Bluff 
and the fuppofed Main- Land, there feemed to 
to be a large Inlet or Opening, with fome Iflands 
near to the high Bluff, the High- Land from the 
Bluff ran to the Eaft ward, and was lliut in with 
the Weftern-moft Part or Point o'i Marble liland. 
To make a better Obfervation we \tt go our 
Anchor, when our Anchor was gone, we found 
the Tide, by the Riding of the Buoy came Ahead 
from the Weftward, running to the Eaftward, 
^nd at the fame Time perceived it had fell along 
Shore fome Feet •, this was a Contradidlion to 
the Tide we had before experienced, and which 
had carried us to the Weftward before we an- 
chored, and ftood fo far out from the Shore. 
Therefore we concluded there muft be two Tides 
here, the one an Eaftern Tide which we were an- 
chored with our Head to, for we knew it could 
not be that Eaftern Tide, that occafioned our be- 
ing fo fet to the Weftward, and there muft be 
confequently a different, or Weftern Tide, under 
Shore ; or perhaps which v/as more probable, it 
flowed Tide and half Tide (that is, that the 
Flood runs ftiil the Way of Flood, until it be half 
N 2 Ebb 

92 ^Voyage for the 

Auguil. Kbb on Shore, and the Ebb runs hkewife its 
Coiirfe in Continuance until it be half Flood upon 
the Shore) and we were kept in this Uncertainty, 
weighing foon after in compliance with the other 
Boat, ftanding round to the Weftward of the 
liland. The Water was extremely clear, of a 
light green Colour, and full of Sea-Spiders. 

As we coafted along the Ifland, we perceived 
on the Shore fingle Stones piled one upon the 
other i the Pile about three Feet and a half in 
Height, the Stones, each about the Size of a 
large Paving-ftone ; We faw alfo a white Whale. 
When we approached the Point to go to the 
Weftward of the Ifland, we difcovered aReef of 
Rocks running out, having at firft fixteen Fa- 
thoms Water, in two Ships Length but five, 
and then but three Fathoms, upon which we bore 
away into better Soundings, as fix Fathoms, 
fo continued in good Soundings i as we opened 
the Land going round to the Weftward of the 
Ifland, we faw a Point at the Weft End of the 
L^and, about two Miles, or two Miles and a 
half Diftance •, behind which, we were in Hopes 
of finding a Harbour, if not for the Ships, yet for 
the Boats, fo neceffary before Night, and which 
we had fought in vain along the South Part of 
the Ifland. When we had tliis Point open, we 
faw a level Beach-Shore, with a Deer ft-anding 
on it, looking at us, this made our People eager 
to land, and, the other Boat confenting to it, we 
ftood in for this Shore, and ran up to the Head 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. 93 

of a Bay which is formed by two Points of Auguft, 
a Rock i which Rock alfo runs all round the 
Head of it. 

Some of the Hands were left to look after the 
Boats, which they were to keep at an Anchor a 
fmall Diftance from the Shore, and the others 
which went Afhore, being armed, were ordered 
not to ramble far from the Boats, and to keep 
together that they might not be furprized, but 
this Order (having feen no Natives within a 
Quarter of an Hour after that they were Afhore, 
therefore they were willing to conclude there 
were none) they foon difregarded •, for when the 
Officers were going over Land in Search of Har- 
bours, they heard a Firing of Guns from almoft 
every Part of the Ifland, now and then feeing one 
of the Boat's People on an Eminence, perhaps 
two on another \ they were all difperfed and 
ftraggling. The Game the Boat's People met 
with was GtdQ, Swans, Ducks, and a great 
Variety of other Wild Fowl, with fome fmall 
Birds : which were moulting and breeding here 
in great Numbers, In the Swamps about the 
the Ifland. There were young Swans, and Gof- 
lings in the Ponds, amongft which our People 
had the greateft Succefs, as they could ford into 
the Water, and reach them with Cutlalhes, or 
knock them down with Sticks. 

This Ifland, which rifes high from the Sea, is 
chiefly compofed of a coarfe Marble, it is hilly 


94 ^Voyage for the 

Auguft. within, but not mountainous between thefe Hillsi 
which are all Rocks of Marble, are pleafant 
Swades with large Ponds, and the Swades produce 
long Grafs, Mofs, Heath, and fmall Flowers, but 
no Wood or Brufh of any Kind, only here and 
there a fmall twig Shrub growing from Clefts be- 
tween two Stones of the Rocks-, you continually fee 
Stones, fet up one upon another, fuch as we 
obferved in coming round the Ifland ; and ufually 
on Heights, not only towards the Shores, but many 
in the inland Parts in Rows at a fmall Diflance 
one from the other, fo that it is not readily to be 
judged what Purpofe they are fet up for •, had they 
been, on the Heights near the Shores only, they 
might have been fuppofed as Sea-marks. 

We faw feveral plain Spots, upon which feem- 
ingly Tents had been ereded, with a Quantity 
ofDecrsand other Bones lying together i here 
and there rotten Horns. There was alfo a Cir- 
cle of Stones of about fix Feet in Diameter, 
raifed about two Feet high lightly pitched one on 
the other j there was nothing in the Manner of it 
neat or curious, only ferving to Ihew that thefe 
Parts have been frequented by fome People. From 
fome of the Ponds, which were on higher Ground 
there are Trenches caft up about a Foot deep, and 
two Feet in Width, the Ground being turnedto a 
Ridge on the one Side, as is done in making a 
Ditch. The Purpofe of thefe Trenches is fecm- 
ingly to difcharge the Ponds, when over-char- 

Difcoviry of a North- Weft Paff'age. 95 

ged with Water from Thaws or large Rains j fo Auguft. 
keeping the upper Land dry. 

One of the Men came to t;he Officers and told 
them, that he had feen fomething in the Water, 
rolled in a great Heap together, and a great 
Length of it, that he had turned it, but could 
not tell what it was -, then hafted away fuppofing 
there were Inhabitants. The Officers having got a 
Parcel of the People together, they went with him, 
but in the Purfuit, fell in with what they were 
before looking for, {Rankin's Cove) They being 
then to the South- Weft Part of the Ifland, faw a 
fmall IQand juft off the Shore, with a Roadftead 
on the In fide 5 upon which they afcend the 
Rocks to the left, and faw beneath them a fine 
Canal, about half a Mile in Length, the Sides 
high Marble Clifts, not difficult of Defcent ; at 
the upper End a flat Swamp, and half Way crofs 
the Bottom a high Marble Cliff, as on the Sides, 
the other Part an Opening, or Entrance, by 
which this Cove communicates with the Sea. 
but the Entrance is covered by the Ifland feen 
before croffing the Cliffs. 

After taking a Survey of this Cove, (and Ihoot- 
ing feme Wild Fowl, of which there were not 
lefs than two hundred fwimming at the Entrance 
of the Cove, but v/ith little Advantage, having 
no Boat there to fetch what was killed) returned 
over Land towards the Boats, in order to take a 
View of the Inlet from the Heights at Sun-fet, 


^6 ^Voyage for the 

Auguft. which appeared then more promifing. The Land 
tothe Weftward of the high Bhiff, trenched away 
to the Weftward, and the Extream of it at fuch 
a Diftance as not to be terminated by the Eye : 
Off this Land there appeared a high Sugar-Loaf 
Ifland, with fome others, beyond a clear Sea •, 
and that Land which looked like the Head of a 
Main Land, forming the South Part of this In- 
let, appeared at leaft eight Leagues from Marble 
Ifland, lying North and South, from the North 
it ftretched but a little Way to the Weftward -, then 
the Land, feem'd to turn fliort off, and run away 
South •, and the Sea feemingly ran away S. W. 

Returning to the Boats, an Ice-Pole had beenfet 
up on the Beach for to know the Height of the 
Tide, purfuant to Orders left. And the Dohbs 
Long-Boat, it being then Flood-Tide, went off to 
try it, but making this Trial of the Tide within 
the Channel, between the Main and Marble Ifland, 
they found it came agreeable to the Courfe of 
the Channel, from the Eaftward, running five 
Fathoms •, but this Trial, as it was to the 
Eaftward of the Bluff, gave no Satisfaftion as to 
what Tide came out from the Inlet •, or what 
Courfe this Tide took when clear of the Channel ; 
or what Courfe it had before it entered fuch 
Channel •, though it was difcernablc from the 
Heights, that, when clear of the Channel, the 
Tide fet round the South End of Marble Ifland 
to the Eaftward. This Channel is formed by 
the Weft End of Marble Ifland, and the Shore 


t)ifcm)ery of a 'North-Weft Pajage, 97 

running to the Eaftward of the faid Bluff ; which Aaguft. 
appeared to be a continued Main. The Chan- 
nel IS nine Leagues in Length, and three Leagues 
Broad, having an IQand in the Middle. 

While the Boat was gone, thofe left behind 
Were employed in Cooking -, there havtng been 
no Viftuais drefled fince their leaving the Ships. 
Befides tne Fuel which they had in the Boats, 
they picked up drift "Wood aloijg the Shore* 
amongft which, they light upon a Piece of Oak 
about two Feet in Length, with fuch Trunnel 
Holes as are made in Ships Sides, and an Edge 
to it where it had been caulked, there .was alfo 
picked up, the Stave of a Buoy, about the Size 
of a Barrel Stave -, in all probability they were 
Part of the Remains of the Wreck of the Ships 
in which Mr. Knight^ and Mr. Barlow^ who 
were fitted out by the Hudfon's> Bay Company 
in the Year 1720, to make a Difcovery, were 
loft •, and it was on this Ifland that Mr. Scroggs^ 
People, who were fent from Churchill, to make 
fome Inquiry after thefe Ships in the Year 1722, 
faw a Piece of the Lining of the Cabin, the 
Medicine Cheft, the Ice-Poles, and Part of the 
Maft in PofTefTion of the EJkemaux, nor would 
the EJkemaux trade any Iron ; what alfo adds to 
thefe Probabilities is, that there are few Coafts 
in the World, upon which (as we afterwards 
found) an Accident of this Kind could be fooner 
expected. '" 

O Whar 

9^ A Vo y A G E for the 

Auguft. What became of the People is alfo uncertain, 
Scroggs thought that fome of them were drowned, 
and that others had fuffered in a Fray with the 
EJkemaux^ one of the EJkemaux having a large 
Scar on his Cheek, like a Cut with a Cutlafh, 
and at that Time a green Wound •, but Captain 
Smith mentions, that when he traded with the 
EJkemaux at Whale Cove, they ufed to fliew him 
^ a young Lad, and call him Englifo Mane, allud- 
ing to his being an Englifi Man, whofe Age was 
feemingly fuitable to the Time of thefe Peoples J 
Misfortune, the Lad appeared as of a mixed 
Breed, which makes it probable that one or more 
of the People might get Afliore and live fome- 
time amongft the EJkemaux, after the Accident -, 
as long poiTibly as they could with eating their 
Diet, and the Nature of the Climate. 

Wefjpped that Night on the Rock, cold and 
unpleafant, and went on Board the Boats at 
twelve 5 having feen the Height of the Tide 
icth. which was ten Feet. In the Morning propoled 
fearching Rankin's Cove, and two others to the 
Northward and Eaftward of that in which the 
Boats were ; afterwards to repair to the Ships 
which we faw in the Evening. But there coming 
on a thick wet Fog, which did net clear until 
eight and then for {o fmall a Time, as only to 
admit us to run into one of the other Coves, and 
there being 'little Profpedt of the Fog clearing 
on the Water, fo as we could purfue our intended 

Peiign ^ 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. 99 

Dcfign; we walked over to i^<^«^/;2's Cove, and Augurt. 
from thence to where the Pole flood, which had 
been (tt up the Night before for the Trial of the 
Tide. Finding at Rankin's Cove that it was 
about high > Water, and where the Pole ftood 
that it was Ebb, having flowed as we could 
conjecture from the Pole (it not being marked j 
much about the fame as the Night before ; and 
high Water then, Auguft the 1 5th at twelve : So 
it appear' d to be one and the fame Tide at where 
the Pole ftood, and at Rankings Cove. 

About one (clearer Weather) returned to the 
Boats, we heard four Guns on the North-Eaft 
Part of tlie Ifland, as we fuppofed, which was 
a peremptory Signal for our coming off, and 
accordingly fet out with the Long-Boats. The 
Long- Boat of the California ftanding out much 
further than the Dobbs Long-Boat, almoil to the 
Ifland in the Mid -Channel, found a ftronger 
Tide there, (hoifting to the Eaftward) than 
was nearer to Marble Ifland. The Boat getting 
far Ahead of the other. What this Tide was we 
were incapable of judging, not being nigh enough 
the Shore of the Ifland in the Mid-Channcl, to 
know whether it was Flood or Ebb, though we 
knew the Tide under Marble Ifland to be Ebb, 
but this feemed a diftindl Tide from that •, if it was 
but one Tide, we then fuppofed it flowed Tide 
and half Tide, and that it was the Strength of 
the Ebb which we were got in, by the Help of 
which we could have got Aboard the Ships or 
O 2 round 

100 -A Voyage for the 

Auguft, round to Rankin's Cove. But the other Boat by 
keeping in Shoar could not, and not willing to 
feparate we flood back for them, and both Boats 
returned to the Cove we came from. Where Cnot 
pleafed with the laft Nights Accomodation ha- 
ving no better Lodging than in the Sails, which 
were foon wet with the Fog) we erected a Tent ; 
fetting up the Oars, and Ice Poles, and covering 
them with a Sale, making a Fire in the Middle, 
there being an opening at the Top of the Tent, 
where the Oars and Ice Poles met to let out the 
Smoak, round the Fire, we ftrewed'd dry Grafs, 
whicli the People cut down with Cutkfhes. Our 
Situation was under a Rock, which covered us, 
from the Wind, on a pleafant Rifing Swade, 
th .t run up a long Way above us, and the Tent 
had atuU View of the Boats, and the Waters, 
about two Hundred Yards below. This Tent 
held both Boats Company excepting four, who 
by Lot had the care of the Boats. The Ships were 
fqe -. in the Evening, three Leagues off the 
Shore, bearing S„ W. by S.. 

This Night pleafant agreeable Weather as ia 
in the Afternoon bef9re, was fpent more comfort- 
ably then the proceeding, at four the next Mornr 
ing fine pleafant Weather, the Tent ftruck, and 
things Aboard the Boats, one of which, the 
JOobFs Boat being got fo far a Ground as not to 
be able to get off until the Flood, the other Boat 
fet out for Rankings Cove, to make a full Difco- 



Dif cover y of a Nortb-Weft Pajfage, loi 

very of that, and there wait the Arrival of the Auguft, 
Dohhs'i Boat, as foon as the Tide would admit. 
Two of the California's People went over Land to 
make Signal of the Heights to the^Boat, when off 
Rankin's Coves Mouth -, and to fhew by 
which Entrance, either to the Eaftward or Weft- 
ward of the Ifland, that lay off the Coves Mouth, 
it was proper for the Boat to come in at. They 
obferved that to the Weftward of fuch IQand, 
which lay off the Coves Mouth, there was a flat 
Shoal, the Tide breaking faft upon it, and that 
at about a Quarter before nine, and at a Quarter 
before ten, the Tide came in over fuch a Shoal 
with a kind of Rulh, until which Time there ap- 
peared no Tide at the Entrance to the Eaftward 
of this Ifland, as there did immediately after. 
And then alfo the Flood was perceptible in the 

The Boat, according to the Signal made, en- 
tered by fuch Eaftern Entrance, which without 
fuch Signal, it would have been difficult to have 
difcovered it, as we had experienced in pafllng 
it two Days before. They entered the Cove, ata- 
bout a Quarter after ten, founded it, found a^ 
the Mouth of it, at going in, not above fix Feet 
Water, the Entrance very Narrow, not exceed- 
ing in width the Length of two Ships, and in the 
Cove found twenty one Fathoms Water, Sandy 
Bottom,owing to the melting Snows and Waters 
off the Land, not the Influx of the Sea, which 
that Day flowed but fix Feet^ as we obferved by 


1^ V o Y A G E for the 

the Shore ; and when we came at one o'Clock 
out of Rankings Cove, in Company with the 
other Boat (which had before joined usj we then 
found at the Entrance, and the Tide only upon 
the Turn, no more then from thirteen to four- 
teen Feet Water. 

Two of the People, who had been on the 
Heights to look o-ut for the Ships, which had 
hoifted a Signal, for our coming Aboard, 
/\ fawtwo Whales coming from the Weft ward. 
The Ships, were about three Leagues off and ly- 
ing by, at two they faw us, and bore away for us ; 
at three we were alongfide after an unpleafant 
Voyage, the Weather being changed to cloudy, 
with a frelh Gale, and great Surf of the Sea, up- 
on our firft ftanding out from the Shore. 

Upon our Return, the Lieutenant of the Califor- 
nia made his Report of their being no Harbour. 
The Entrance to Rankings Cove too Ihallow to ad- 
mit Ships into the Cove, and the other Coves {^.t^v 
to Weftward of the Ifland, fit only fur anchoring 
fmall Veflels, which Report he was ordered to put 
in writing •, together with whatObfervations he had 
made as to the Tides, to be laid before the Coun- 
cil, which accordingly met that Evening Aboard 
the California^ when the Report was produced. 
But no Report on the Part of the Lieutenant of 
the Dohhsy who was appointed by Council to 
aft as Chief in that Affair, but fome Notes read 
by the Draftfman as his own, which were agree- 

Bifcovery of aNorth'WeJi Paffage. 103 

able to the Report made by the Lieutenant of the Auguft. 
California ; and the Draft/man was at more lei- 
fure, to form a Report from them ; but fuch Re- 
port if drawn up was never given in. 

After hearing the Report and Notes, It was 
then propofed that the Ships fhould hold up eight 
and forty Hours, in hopes of a better Opportuni- 
ty, the Wind being then contrary, to try the 
Inlet, which Captain Smilh oppofed. Though 
the Propofal was feemingly proper, fuiting with 
the Service we were fent on, and with the IncUna- 
tion of every one j yet in reality it wasnotpra6ti- 
cable without running an extream Hazard. For 
as it was propofed ; that the Ships fhould go in 
amongft broken Lands, where there was a num- 
ber of Shoals and Rocks and all unknown ; when 
the Nights were Dark, and it was a Seafon for 
thick Weather with Gales of Wind ; there would 
be little or no poflibility of thofe Ships being 
kept clear, from going on fuch Shoals or RockSj 
by reafon of the Darknefs of the Nights, the 
Thicknefs of the Weather, or from the Force of 
Winds i the Confequence of which would be- the 
Lofs of the Ships, and of all thofe that were in 
them. There was an Inflance, of this Kind in 
thofe unfortunate Gentlemen Knight and Barlow. 
For to nothing can their Lofs, and of thofe that 
were with them, be fo properly attributed as to 
their late coming into thefe Parts, and their then 
going in amongft the broken Lands, with their 
Ships, and their Ships being their fet a Ground, 


I04 AVoYXGZ for the 

Augull. or on the Shoals, or Rocks, either from the 
Darkncfs of the Night, the thicknels of the Wea- 
ther, or a Gale of Wind. The Circumftance of the 
Buoy Stave found at Marble Iflandj as mentio- 
ned J and the Things found by Scroggs, at the 
fame Place 5 all make it probablcj that this very 
Inlet-, or the broken Lands near, was the Place 
where the Misfortune happened. It was there- 
fore more prudent j not to hazard all, but to de- 
fer the proceeding amongft fuch Lands, to a 
more feafonable Opportunity, and to purfue at 
prefent ("what was more fuiting with the Time of 
the Year) the going to Winter Qjiarters, and 
preparing for Wintering. 

What was obferved upon Survey amongft thefe 
Very broken Lands the next Year-, was an Evi- 
dence afterwards of the good Judgment with which 
anOppofition was made. For we were fenfible upon 
fuch Survey, that had we ventured in with the 
Lands, agreeable to the Propofal, there was the 
higheft Probability, had the Weather been any 
otherwife then moderate, v/cmufthave periflied. 

The Winter was not far off: The Ships muft 
go to the South Part of the Bay, to feek a Har- 
bour, if a convenient Harbour was not found in 
Port Nelfon River, they would then be obliged 
to go to Churchill^ the Ships were to be unrigged, 
the Stores taken out. Houfes built for wintering, 
and Fuel provided. All which would be a Work 
of foweTime, and if left until the Winter began, 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Pajfage. 105 

would be attended with fome Difficulties 5 if the Auguft, 
Harbouring the Ships was left until that Time, 
it would be to the great Hazard of them both. 
But the befb Judgment of what was the right 
Time forgoing to Wintering, is to be deduced 
from obferving what hath been done by others 
in the like Cafe ; and what was confequent on 
their Proceedings. 

Hudfon^ Button, Monk, and James, all win- 
tered. Hud/on, who wintered in a low Latitude 
in the South Part of -the Bay, harboured his 
Ship the Beginning of November, and Ihe was 
froze up !he tenth. * It caufed great Labour to 
buildaHoufe, which they did not afterwards in- 
habit, and fuffered very much. ^ Stir Thomas But ton 
having been drove to the Southward by a Storm, 
and conftrained to look for a Harbour, got into 
a Creek on the North Side of Port Nelfon 
River (fo named by him after his Mafter, whom 
he buried there) on the 13th oi Auguji^ to re- 
pair fome Lofles ■, after that Time came on the 
new Winter, with much ftormy Weather ; as he 
was conftrained to winter there, wintering in his 
Ship, he fufFering very much according toCapt, 
Fox's, Account, for Want of a proper Provifioii 
of Fuel. Captain Monk wintered at Churchill^ La- 
titude 59. as is evident not only from the Can- 
non found there, marked with PCing Chrijilanus'' s 
Mark C4. "■ But from the P^elation of theVoyage, 

a Prickei\ .Account of Hudfins Voyage, North-Weft. Flx 
?.jg. b North- Weft, fc^x P. 1 1 8. p. 24S. <= zi Vol. 
Qi Chnrchi'Pi Vo)'aggf. An Account 0! Grceniuy.d. p. 475. 

P which 

ip6 A Voyage for the 

Auguit. which mentions this People's providing Wood ; 
whereas in Latitude 63°. 20''. the Place faid to 
be his Wintering-Place, there is no Wood, and, 
on the other Hand at Churchill^ there was at 
that Time plenty of Wood, alfo at the firft fettling 
o Churchill they found Hutts with Human 
Bones in them, which agrees with the Relation, 
that fuch of MonV^ People as died were forced 
to be left above Ground, for Want of Strength 
in the others to bury them. Captain Monk 
harboured his Ship the feventh of September, be- 
behind fome Rocks in a Bay at the Entrance of 
a River (which Defcription agrees alfo with 
Churchill.) They afterwards built themfelves 
Huts, and provided Fuel againft the Winter. 
And the principal Caufe of the Mortality which 
happened (only himfelf and two more being left 
alive out of fixty-five Perfons) was their Want of 
Provifion to fupport themfelves with, in the Se- 
verity of the Seafon. ^ Captain James began his 
Wintering the fourth of October at Charlton 
Ifland, by his own Obfervation Latitude 52.00. . 
his Ship in great Hazard, and on the twenty-ninth 
of November, he funk his Ship as the moft effec- 
tual Way of fecuring her, he and his People 
fuffering a great Fatigue in getting the Pro- 
vifions and Neceflaries Afhore, and providing 
Houfcs, ^c. In the Travels of the MiffionerSy 
there is an Account by Father Gabriel Mareft^ a 
Jefuit, of the Difficulties they met with to har 

* Voyage of Captam JameSfV. 4;. 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl PaJJage, 1 07 

hour two Ships -, the one in Hays^s River by Tork- Auguft. 

Fort, in Hudfon's Bay, which the French call 

St. Terefa ; and to harbour the other Ship in Port 

Fielfon River, by the French, called Bourbon 

River. This was upon an Expedition of the 

French to take Tork Fort, in the Year 1 694, he 

lays (the Ship he was Aboard of having entered 

Hays' % River) the thirtieth of September, " We 

could not poffibly advance, on the firft of 

OSiober we continued in the fame Condition, 

the Wind being ftill contrary, our Veflel 

aground at low Water, and there being no 

PoiTibility of Tacking •, in the mean Time, 

the Wind, the Cold, and Ice increafed every 

Day i we were within a League of the Place 

v/here we were to land, and in Danger of 

not being able to reach it. On the fecond of 

O^ober (they having pafled the Faftory, and 

advanced higher up the Night before) our 

Ship, fays the Father, had like to have pe- 

" rilhed. As we were making ready, and 

' were in Hopes to be very foon in the Port, 

' which we could almoft reach, a great Cloud 

' of Snow took away from us the Sight of the 

' Land, and a flrong Guft of Wind at N. W. 

' caft us on a Shoal where we ftuck at high 

' Water, there we had a difmal Night ; about 

' ten the faid Night, the Ice carried by the 

* Stream, and pufhed on by the Wind, began 
' to beat againft our Ship with fuch a dreadful 
' Force and Noife, that it might have been 

* heard a League off, which Battery lafted four 

P 2 "or 

'lo8 -^ Vo Y A G E Jor the 

Augnfl. a or five Hours : The Ice beat the Ship fo 
'' violently that it cut the Planks, and in leveral 
" Places they were rubbed off four Inches deep. 
" Monfieur cf Iberville (who commanded in 
*' that Expedition) caufed twelve Pieces of Can- 
" non, and feveral other things which could not 
*' be loft, or fpoiled in the Water, to be thrown 
* * over-board to lighten the Ship, and afterwards 
" had thofe Pieces of Cannon covered with Sand, 
'' for fear they fliould be carried away in the 
" Spring by the Force of the Sea. 

" The third, the Wind fomewhat abating, 
" Monfieur ^' Iberville concluded to unlade his 
" Ship, vv'hich was ftill in Danger of Pcrifliing ; 
" we could not make ufe of the Long- Boat for 
" that Service, there being no Pofiibility of car- 
" rying it acrofs the Ice, which ftill came on in 
*' great Quantities •, but we ufed the Canoes 
" made of Bark, which we had brought from 
*' ^ebeck^ and which our Canadians conveyed 
*' athwart the Ice, with wonderful Dexterity. 

** We had heard of the PoU (the other Ship 
" feeking a ITarbour in Port N elf on River^ and 
*' were informed that Ship was in no lefs Danger 
" than ours. The W-'ind, the Ice, and the Shoals 
** had all confpired againft it. Once it ran a 
*' Ground, and a great Piece of the Keel had been 
** carried away, fo that tour Pumps would not 
*' difcharge the Water it m.ade. Several Barrels 
** of i*cwder had taken wet in unloading of the 

'^ VelTcl. 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Paffage, 109 

*' Veflel. It was not yet come to the Place Auguft. 
" where it Ihoiild have wintered, and there was 
" Dangerthatit could not be carried up thither," 

But to return to our Council : The Propofal 
of holding up for eight-and-forty Hours for try- 
ing the Inlet was fo popular, that no one oppofed 
it but Capt. Smith and his Lieutenant ; and ac- 
cordingly an Ad; of Council was drawn up, 
agreeable to the Propofal : But, when offered to 
be figned, then one feemed backward, afterwards 
a Second •, and at laft they all decUned Signing 
fiKh Ad. 

The next Day a Council again met on board 
the California, v/hen all the iVi embers were pre- 
fent, except the Surgeon of the Dohhs, and the 
Confent was general for bearing away for Win- 
ter-Quarters -, nothing more propofed for trying 
the Inlet, but mentioned by all as an improper 
and hazardous Attempt : It was alfo propofed 
by the Draft fman, that the Aft of Council made 
the Night before, and unfigned, fhould be torn 
out of the Book it was wrote in, and burned -, 
but this was oppofed by Capt. Smith, who in- 
filled upon fuch A61 remaining in the Book. 

Port-Nelfon River was the Place pitched on 
for Wintering, there being a Probability ot our 
finding a Harbour, as a French Man of War, 
of fifty Guns, had wintered there when I'^ork 
Fort was in their Pofiefiion \ and the Reafons 


no yfVoYAGE for the 

Auguft. for preferriag Port Nd[on to Churchill were, be- 
caufe that River broke up feme Weeks fooner 
than the River at Churchill. Port Nelfon is in a 
better Climate, a Country more abounding with 
Game, greater Plenty of Wood, and, being 
near Tork Fort, which is the principal Faftory 
of the Hudfon^s Bay Company, there would be a 
Probability of getting more Indians there to hunt 
for us than we Ihould at Churchill^ being an in- 
ferior Fadory. 

In neither of thefe Councils had it been put as 
a Queftion, whether it would be proper to return 
to England -, for there was a fine Inlet, and every 
one knew from the Trial which had been made 
in the Boat of the Tide, that a Tide came round 
the Weft End of Marble I (land, which they in- 
ferred was from Inlets to N. W. of the IQand •, 
and comparing the Obfervations thofe in the Boats 
had made of the Tides when to Southward of the 
liland, and what had been experienced on board 
the Ships when alfo to Southward of fuch I (land, 
the Ships having been carried the 1 5th at Night, 
then a Calm, greatly to the Eaftward by the 
Flood-Tide, concluded, that there was (befides 
that Weftern Tide round the Ifland, and from 
the Inlets to N. WJ a Weftern Tide likewife 
out of this Inlet, which they had difcovered to 
South-Weftward or Rankin's Inlet, and that 
thefe Tides could be no other than from a 
Weftern Ocean j therefore, it would be better 
to ft ay the Winter, that we might be ready to 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Pajfage, ill 

proceed in Spring -, whereas, if we returned to Auguft. 
England^ we might be as late in the following 
Year as wc were in this ; fo equally unable to 
proceed then as we were now. 

Thefe feemed to be the Reafons which were 
conclufive with every one for Wintering, as not 
the leaft Queftion was made about it, as to whe- 
ther it was not properer to return to England than 
winter here. There was one Objedion ftarted 
as to Wintering, but that was upon a different 
Account, as that it would not be proper to win- 
ter, the People not having fuitable Cloathing ; 
and this was an Objection ftarted by one Perfon 

About One in the Morning, Jugufi the 
Twenty- fixth, the Tide making down, bothi6th. 
Ships came to an Anchor at the Entrance of 
Hays's River, in five Fathom, Water •, and 
the Noon before we had anchored off Port Nel- 
fon Shoals, the firft anchoring fince our leaving 
the Orkneys on the Twelfth oijune •, having had 
but few Hours between the Seventeenth of this 
Inftant, the Time we bore away for Winter- 
Quarters, and the Time of our anchoring, either 
of funlhiny and clear, or moderate Weather ; 
moftly cloudy and hazy. Rain and Sleet, with 
fome Snow, ftrong Winds, or Squally ; feeing 
feveral Flights of Plover and Geefe making to 
the Southward, the Signs of an approaching 
Winter in the Parts we were paffing by ; but 


112 ^Voyage for the 

Auguft. when we came near to the Land to the South- 
ward, feeing a Number of white Whales, con- 
cluded Winter would not yet begin there. It 
was very cold all our Way down the Bay, but on 
our Approach to the Land we had it temperate. 
The Sea in our Paflage down was of various 

The Place of our Anchoring was in a Bay, 
into which there fell two great Rivers (Port 'Nel- 
fon River, and, to the Southward of that, HayCs 
River) which Rivers are parted from each other 
by a low Slip of Land, on which is 7'ork Fore 
Fadory -, and this Land, being an Iiland, is 
called Hays's Ifland. The Channels of thefe Ri- 
vers, after they are pafTed Hays^s Ifland, are kept 
feparate, until they have run fome Diftance into 
this Bay by Shoais, one of which begins at the 
Foot of Hays's Iiiand, and is dry at Low-Water ; 
other Shoals join that, which are covered at all 
Times with Water. Thefe Shoals run to the 
Northward more than three Leagues. The N. 
of Hays's Ifland is Lat. 57^^ 30". The N. E. 
Point of this Bay, where it empties into Hudfon's 
Bay, which is Cape 'Tatnam^ is in Lat. 57°. 48" 
Long. 91^ 30". The other Point to N. W. 
of this Bay, which is Port Nelfon Shoals, is in 
Lat. 58°. 00. Long. 920. 40". Thofe Channels, 
while divided, are not two Leagues diftant from 
each other in the v/idefl Parts of the Shoals, with 
Cuts through as would admit Ships to pafs from 
one River to the other. 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Faffage. 

1 1 


Port t^elfon River was at firft difcovered by Auguft.' 
Sir Thomas Button^ and named after his Ma- 
fter, as mentioned, who died there. ^Capt. 
Fox and ^ Capt. James were both here. Capt. 
Fox was firft, and landed, naming the Land 
New Torkjhire. Was alfo at the Spot where Sir 
Thomas had wintered, and finding a Crofs which 
had been erecled by Sir Thomas^ but now fallen. 
Or pulled down, with the Infcription rafed out, 
he caufed the Crofs to be new raifed, and a Piece 
of Lead nailed on, with an Infcription thereon, 
purporting, Capt. Fox fuppofed that Sir Tho- 
mas had firfb ereded fuch Crofs, and it was now 
raifed again by him, in Fvight and PolTeffion of 
his Sovereign, Auguft 15, in the Year 1634. Capt 
James, though not aflioar, named this Land the 
Principality of fFales, and in the Charts it is called 
New South- JVales. The French called Port 
Nelfon River the River Bourbon, as mentioned ; 
and Hays's River, which they were the firft Dif- 
coverers of, they named St. Terefa, becaufe the 
Difcoverer's Wife bore the Name of that Saint. 

The Morning of the 26th, after Sun-rife, was 
extreamly pleafant ; and the barren Views we had 
beenfo long entertained with, greatly contributed 
to make the Land, which we now lay about a 
Mile and Half ofi^, to look the more agreeable, 
low Land, with Woods, at fome Diftance from 
the Shore, looking pleafantly green. Between 

» North -We^, F<7v,> 217. ^ Capt. Jamei'i Voyage for 
difcoverlng a FalTage to vhe South Sea, p. 25. 

Q the 

114 !/^VoYAGE for the 

Auguft. the Woods and Shore a low Marfh. About Six 
Capt. Smith went off in his Pinnace, attended by 
Gapt. Moofs Mate in the Dobbs's Pinnace, to 
learch for the Spot where the Ships were to an- 
chor, while a Harbour was fearched for •, being 
to be followed by the Ships, with the Long-boats 
a-head to found, when the Tide Ihould make -, 
the Channel being fhallow and difficult, not tp 
be attempted by thofe who do not know it, as a 
Miftake may be the Lofs of a Ship, and a Know- 
ledge of the Channel fome Years before will not 
da for aTime after, by reafon that the Channel fo 
often alters from the Shifting of the Shoals ; which 
Altering of the Channel greatly contributes to the 
Security of the Factory againfl the Enemy. 

The Pinnaces lay upon the Spot where the 
Ships were to anchor, and at Four in the After- 
noon the California arrived there. The Dobbs, 
touching the Ground about Three, ftruck ; and 
the Tide being on the Turn, could nor, in Spite 
of all Endeavours, both Long-Boats being fcnt 
to affift her, get off that Tide. We came 
into this Road with our Enfign out •, and on our 
Anchoring, faluted the Factory at about feven 
Miles off, with feven Guns j which was taken 
no Notice off; but while we were in our Paflage 
up, the Factory fired a fingle Gun, which we 
fuppofed to be, as it was, an Alarm-Gun for 
their People to come in. About Five we dif- 
cerned their Boat bufy in finking or taking up a 
couple of Buoys •, and when that was done, they 


bifcovery of a North-Weft Pajage. i i $ 

came towards the Ship to cut down a Beacon that Auguft 
was fet upon a Pile of Stones at the Edge of the 
large Shoal before -mentioned to the Northward 
of Hays^s Ifland, and which dried at Low Wa- 
ter, and which the Ship now lay off ofi 
and this Beacon was- to fhew the Spot we were 
then at Anchor upon. Capt. Smith, apprehending 
this, manned his Pinnace with four Oars, and 
put in only two Sitters, that thofe in the Fadory 
Boat might not apprehend any Annoyance •, giv- 
ing Orders to his People to defire thofe in the 
Factory Boat not to cut the Beacon down until 
the other Ship came up. But by the Time that 
Gapt. *S'»^///^'s Boat joined the Faclory Boat, two 
of the Faftory People were got ort Shore on the 
Pile of Stones 5 and thofe in the Boat being dc- 
fired not to let them cut down the Beacon, they 
faid it was the Governor'' s Orders, Being ask'd 
if they knew who we were, one replied^ Yes^ 
I knew it to be Capt. Smithy when I came near 
fenough to fee him ; and it being faid to that, . 
Why do you cut down the Beacon then ? The 
Anfwer was. It is the Governors Order, and 
how did we know but you were French ? You 
have been in the Offing thefe three or four Days 
fireing of Guns ; we have been forced to keep 
half Watch every Night, Now it was no way 
probable, whatever their Fears might prefent to 
them, that the French would make their Signals 
for Tacking or Lying by (which was the Mean- 
ing of the Guns fired between the two Ships, 
and which they heard) when they vrere fo near 
Q^ 2 their 

Ii6 -^Voyage for the 

Auguft. their Enemies Coaft. Nor would the Governor^ 
had he not been well fatisfied who we were, be- 
fore they came with their Boat to have a plain 
View of the Ship, to inform them, have fent 
them on fuch an Expedition as the Cutting down 
a Beacon within Piftol-Shot of an Enemy's Ship 
of Force. 

It was, as we then fuppofed, and afterwards 
learned, the Effect of PaiTion. The Indians who 
firft faw us faid there were four Ships, two great 
ones and two little ones. The little ones were 
the Long-Boats, which loomed by their Fears 
and the Weather to be no lefs than Bombketches, 
the Ships two Men of War. The Difcoverers 
were known to be two Ships only ; here were 
four, fo it could not be them. The Alarm was 
fent into the Country tor all the Factory People 
to come Home, every thing prepared for De- 
fence, when in the Interim the Governor had 
certain Intelhgence of our being Friends, and 
angry at the Surprize we had put him into, to 
vent his Spleen, iffued thefe Orders tor taking 
up the Buoys, and cutting down the Beacon ; 
and at this thofe in the Fa6lory Boat feemed to 
hint, when they asked the People in Capt. Smith'' s. 
Boat (who were defiring them not to cut down 
the Beacon) why then, fay the Factory People, 
had there not been a Boat fent up to the Cover- 
nor ? Which was excufed by laying, that the 
Long-Boat was fent to Capt. Moor's Affiftance, 
and there was but the Pir;nace befides ; but in the 


Difcovery of a North-Wefl Paffage, 117 

Morning a Boat would be fent up. This Con- Auguft. 
verlation was, while the two Men on Shore on 
the Pile of Stones were bufy in cutting down the 
Beacon ; and when they finiflied theirWork, they 
returned to the Boat, and rowed away •, having 
been firft defired to call aboard the Ship, which 
they excufed themfelves from, with faying they 
had not Time. 

We learned from them, that the Hudfon's Bay 
Ships, bound for that Fort, had been for fome 
Days gone for England : That theH^^J/ow'sBay 
Ships, whom we had parted with on the feven- 
teenth of June at Night, had not entered the 
Streights until nine Days after us, but had been 
more fortunate in pafling them, having never 
made faft to Ice but once, that fomewhere about 
Manfell liland. Capt. Smilh's Boat returned 
Aboard with the Beacon in Tow, being a fine 
ftraight Piece of Pine, with a good Brufh or 
Broom at the End, 

We had the Satisfa6lion of hearing that Night 
of the Dobbs being fafc, being on a hard Ground 
and upright, though it was dry all about her -, 
they had been flaving the Water aboard, her, in 
order to lighten her aft, not doubting to get off 
the next Tide. Capt. Smith alfo promifed to 
hoift two Lights at his Fore-topfail Yard-arm, 
one at each Extreme, as a Diredion for her io 
the Night, 


1x8 ^Voyage for the 

Auga{l27. The Dohhs got off in the Night, but did not 
join us. Next Morning Capt. Smith went down 
to bring her up, and about twelve the Dohhs cam6 
to an Anchor, juft aitern of the California ; then 
faluted the Fadtory with feven Guns, which were 
not anfwered by the Fa6tory •, but in the Morn- 
ing the Fadory had fired three fingle Guns, and 
at a Diftance of Time the one from the other^ 
though on what Account we could not tell. 

In the Afternoon a Boat arriving from the 
Factory, thofe in her bringing a Letter from 
the Governor, a Council was called on Board (rf" 
the Dohhs, to confider of fuch Letter •, wherein 
the Governor tells the Commanders, not to come 
higher with the Ships at their Peril, unlefs (hew- 
ing a proper Authority from the Government, or 
the Company trading in thofe Parts. As to the: 
Hudfon^s Bay Company, the Captains had no 
Authority from them •, what they had from the 
A6t of Parliament made in Favour of this Ex- 
pedition no one could tell, not having it with 
them ; and as to any other Authority, no one 
of the Council knew where to feek it, until fhewn 
by Capt. Smith, in a Claufe of the CommilTions 
which both Ships had as Privateers, and by which 
they had a Right to any Afiiftance that that Port 
could fupply them with, and by Confequence, 
could not be oppoled in going to harbour where 
the Commanders pleafed •, though it was not the 
Intention that the Ships Ihould go higher up, 


Difcovery of a North-WeftlPaffage, 119 

being only to wait there, where they were at An- Auguft. 
chor, until a Jtiarbour was found in Port Nelfon 

A Letter was wrote, and two Perfons, one 
from each Ship, went with it, carrying alfo the 
two Privateer Commiffions. They went in the 
Faftory Boat, one of the Ship's Boats attending, 
to bring them back. The Governor fired twice 
or thrice while they were on their Way, which 
was a private Signal between him and his People, 
The two Deputies being landed three Miles fhort 
of the Fadlory, had a very dirty muddy Walk, 
and, when arrived, as indifferent a Reception ; 
which being complained of, the People at the 
Fa6tory replied, that the Example had been fet 
by the Treatment their People received when 
Aboard Capt. Moor. The Deputies returned 
about Twelve at Night, with a Letter from the 
Governor and Council, whereby he invites the 
Captains to the Fa6tory, that he might know 
their Wants, and confult with refpecSt to their 
Wintering. What Re meant by knowing their 
Wants, and another ExprefTion in his Letter, 
calling the Ships his Majefty's Ships, I never 
underftood, unlefs led into it by fome ExprefTion 
in the Letter the Deputies carried •, a Copy of 
which I never faw, Capt. Moor at all Times re- 
fufing to give one to Capt. Smiih. 

The next Morning Jugujl the Twenty-eighth, zStk. 
the Long -Boat of the Calif orma^ and the Pinnace 


I20 A Voyage for the 

Auguft. belonging to the Bobbs^ fet out to fearch for a 
Channel through the Shoals or Flats to Port Nel- 
fon River, and to return by the next Tide. The 
t?wo Captains went up to the Factory, where the 
Governor declared, that the Ships fhould not 
come above the Fadory, and that if they at- 
tempted it, he would fire at them •, but that the 
Boats might. Capt. Smith defied him, and told 
him, that if he fhould fire at his Ship he would 
return it: And the Governor being afked as to 
his giving his Advice as to a proper Place to 
winter in, agreeable to his Letter, faid, he mull 
be excufed ; the Governor looking on it as 
a certain Confeqiience, that if the Ships came 
above the Faftory, they would intercept his 
Trade, the major Part of which would be come 
down that River before the Ships could get out ; 
but, as already mentioned, Capt. Smith had no 
Thoughts at that Time but of Wintering in Port 
Nelfon^ fo not of going above the Fadory •, but 
'wo.ild not be prevented by the Governor if he 
thought it neceflary. 

The Boats returned from the Search that Even- 
ing, thofe in them giving an Account that there 
was a Channel through the Flats, though not a 
great Depth of Water, yet a Sufficiency, and a 
fine Channel when in Port Nelfon River. Capt. 
Moor and Capt. Smith fet out the next Morning, 
with both Ships Long-Boats and Pinnaces, to 
take a better Survey of fuch Channel, and find, a 
Harbour on the North Side of Port Nelfon River, 


Difcovery of a North'Wefl Pajfage. 12 1 

where they might go free from the Ice and the Auj^uft. 
Spring Deluge, which fometimes happens, occa- 
fioned by the Suddennefs of the Thaw, and the 
Stoppage of the Ice, with terrible Accounts of 
which Deluges the People at the Factory had 
entertained our Men, who went with the Cap- 
tains to the Factory the Day before -, telling them, 
as though it was certainly confequent, (liouid the 
Ships winter above the Factory, of their having a 
Deluge, as there was one annually above the 
Faftory, no Spring without. The Captains were 
Abroad all that Night, but the next Afternoon, 30th. 
about four, we faw the Boats coming Soon after 
Sun-fet a Canoe came and lay off a fmall Diftance 
from the Ship, thofe in her haling us in Englijhy 
with, IVhat Chear ? They w^ere anfwered, and 
three Indians came, with their Canoe, Alongfide, 
telling us, they had Geefe, and when Aboard, 
brought thrre out of a large grcafy Leather 
Satchel, picked and drefled i for which they had 
a Bottle of Indian Brandy, the Name given for 
two Thirds of Brandy, and one of Water. Said, 
that they were at Albany, did not like the People 
there, fo were come here, and now they were 
going from hence Southward, in Purfuit of 
Winter-Quarters, with their Families •, for they 
had been imployed by the Governor to fhoot 
Geefe, but the Geefe not coming in Plenty, and 
there not being a fufficient Employ, he had dif- 
charged them. Capt. Smith hearing this when 
he came Aboard, agreed with them to come and 
fhoot all Winter, on fuch Terms as they ap- 

R proved j 

122 -^Voyage for the 

Auguft. proved; though they faid, they muft firft gq 
Southward, and they would foon return ; and if 
they met any of their Friends, as they probably 
might, they would bring them with them tQ 
hunt. They were alfo dcfired to bring Venifon, 
which they promifed, on fuch Terms as was great 
for them, a Buck for two Bottles of Brandy. 
They had Pipes and Tobacco given them, with 
Liquor, and whatever was thought would pleafe, 
they behaving very civilly on their Part ; ftaid all 
Night, lying on the Deck, and until the After- 
noon of the next Day, feeding on Grout, which 
is Oatmeal, boiled to a Thick nefs, fweetened 
with Moloflfus. They were three young Fellows, 
one much fuperior to the other two, and better 
habited, the others very meanly. In the After- 
noon they went afliore in the Boats, as there was; 
a fmall Sea, the Canoe towing after, all the Boats, 
going in Search of a Harbour in Harp River, or 
on the Shore to Eaflward ; what had been done 
the three Days before with fo much Fatigue, and 
the Night the Captains were out at Port Nelfon^ 
fpending it on the Ground, with only a Fire be- 
fore them, to proteft them from the Cold, and 
Mufhettoes, turning out to no Effedl, by the ob- 
ftinate Refolution of Capt. Moor^ that his Ship 
fnould not go through the Channel which they had 
found, though Capt. Smith offered to carry his 
Ship firft, and fetch the Bobbs afterwards. Capt. 
Moor was alfo determined that his Ship fhould not 
return over the Shoals the Way fhe had come ir^ 
vntjl next Year, to proceed upon the Difcoveryt 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Paffage. 123 

and not that Year to enter Port Nelfon River by Auguft. 
the Mouth of it. And Capt. Smith, though he 
was fcnfible how good a Harbour they had tound 
on the North Shore of Port Nelfon River, ufualiy 
called Guillam's Creek, how much better it would 
be Wintering under this Shore than any where in 
Hays's River, was alfo fenfible they were likely 
to get out fooner in the Year, and fhould have 
the Governor of Tork Fort on better Terms than 
at any other Place, as here they could have a 
greaterlntercourfe with the/«iM«x,(aThing which 
the Governor fo much feared) than any where 
clfe ; yet, as no Arguments could prevail with 
Capt. Moor, he was forced to comply, thinking 
it bell that the Ships fhould not feparate. 

While the Indians were Aboard, there came 
fome of the Fadory People Alongfide, and, after 
much Perfwafion, were prevailed with to come 
Aboard, making but a ihort Stay^ pretending^ 
that the Governor knew nothing of this their Vi- 
fiti though it was rather fufpedled they came to 
learn what had been done In the laft Voyage made 
in the Boats. 

When the Boats fet out to fearch for a Har- 
bour, the thirty-firft in the Afternoon, in Hays^s 3^^ 
River, it was agreed that Capt. Moor fhould go 
with his Boats above the Fa6lory, and Capt. 
Smith to fearch for a Creek he had heard of on 
the Eaftern Shore •, but there was fo foon a Shal- 
lowing of the Water ss Capt. Smith approached 

K 2 that 

124 -^ Vo Y A G E jor the 

Augult. that Shore, that he was fenfible no Ship could ftaiKl 
in for a Harbour there -, and putting the Indians 
into their Canoe, faw them arrive fate, take it on 
their Shoulders, and walk over Land. The Boats 
then were ordered to follow Capt. Afoor, who was 
gone above the Fadtory •, upon our coming near 
which, the Governor fired a Shot, as we fuppofed 
to bring us to •, upon which Capt. Smith went 
alhore with one of the Boats, fending the other, 
as intended, after Capt. Moor. The Governor 
excufcd his firing, with faying, it was a Signal 
for the Churchill Sloop to come in, which he 
thought he efpied m the Offing, and might be 
tearful to venture in, on feeing our two Ships. 

The Fadlory is priced about three Miles from 
the North End of the Ifland, and, on the Eaftern 
Side, Hays's River running clofe bctore it ; which 
River, and Port Nelfon, glide in one, until fepa- 
rated by this Ifland ; then forming two Rivers, 
one on each Side the Ifland, as mentioned. The 
Ifland but low Land, and> from the Point of the 
Ifland to the Fadlory, a flat, gravel, and muddy 
Shore, with a Bank within of a bluiili Marie, 
well covered v/kh Poplar, Pine, and Alder ; the 
Yellow of whole Flower, mixed v;ith the Green 
of the Fir and Poplar, looked pleafanter than 
any Thing that could be expefted to be found in 
thefe Parts, 

Sepi I . 

The next Day, Septemher the firfl:, the Cali ■ 
foniia (thofc in the Boat having difcovcred there 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Paffage, 1 25 

was a Channel fomc Way above theFadory, tho* September, 
intricate, and Capt. Moor giving an Account of 
a Creek which would be fuitable) weighed, and 
ftood nearer to the Fadory, there to lighten ; 
which was immediately began upon. 

The next Morning, September the fecond, the 2d 
Governor fent a Meffage, defiring Capt. Smith to 
fend his Boat, with Somebody, to let him know 
where he intended to lay his Ship. This Meffage 
was fucceeded by a Letter brought by fome from 
the Fadory, in which the Governor mentions, 
if we would not winter the Ships above a Place 
there mentioned, and below the Fadory, he would 
affift us as far as lay in his Power, and was con- 
fiftent with his Orders from the Company. 

The Perfon who brought the Meffage had 
been many Years here, fo it might be prefumed, 
from his Experience, that he well know the Na- 
ture of the Country. Under that Pretence he 
pointed out a Place as from his own Obfervation, 
fit for our Wintering, which was at the Extreme 
of the IQand, and called, the Point of Marjh, 
afferting it better than any Place above the Fac- 
tory •, as no Accident could be from the breaking 
up of the Ice, which there always goes away af- . 
ter an eafy Manner, nor no Fear from a Deluge ; 
and both one and the other might be expeded,to 
the Deftrudion of the Ships, in Wintering any 
where above the Fadory, 


126 ^Voyage for the 

September. The Mefiage and Letter Capt. Smith anfweredi 
for the prefent, with faying, he would Ipcak to 
Capt. Moor, whom he expected would bring up 
his Ship that Afternoon ; then he would fend the 
Governor an Anfwer. But, prevented by the 
Weather, it was the next Morning before the 

«i Dobhs could join us ; and that Afternoon the 

Point of Marjh was viewed by the Captains and 
the whole Council ; but gave fo little Satisfac- 
tion, that Capt. Smithy and fome others, (though 
Capt. Moor was willing to acquiefce with it, as a 
proper Place for laying the Ships) that, on the 
next Morning, September the fourth, the two Cap- 
tains fet out in their Boats, to fearch for anothet 

4th Harbbur, firft fending the Governor an Anfwer 

to his Letter, which I never faw a Copy of, it 
being refufed Capt. Smiih -, but, by the Report 
of the Perfon who carried it, the Governor ex- 
prelTed himfelf well fatisfied, protnifed his AlTift- 
ance, and that agreeable to Orders received from 
the Hudfonh Bay Company. 

At twelve that Night the Captains returned* 
having employed themfelves in furveying the 
Creeks, and obferving the Tides •, and next Morn- 
ing the Ships got under Way, in order to proceed 
nearer the Fadlory, and within the Land. In or- 
cth der to fhew the Channel, (for the Dire6bion 

of which two Beacons were erefted, both now 
cut down by the Governor's Orders,) two People 
were fent, one with a Jack, another with a Pendant, 
- to 

Difcovery of a North-Weft PaJJage, 127 

to ftand at the Spots where thofe Beacons had September/- 
been. The Tide being down, we came to an 
Anchor Ihort of the Place intended ; grounded 
at low Watbr, in fuch a Manner as it was feared 
the Ship would receive a great Damage. Having 
again altered our Station, we had anotherVifitfrom 
fome of the Faftory •, and Capt. Smith and Capt. 
Moor going up in the Boat, the Governor fired a 
Shot, which was obferved by feveral to pitch in 
the Sand. The Fadory People being asked. If 
they came on Bufinefs ? They faid, Np, they 
only came to converfe Tete a Tete \ and as to the 
Shot no one ever knew what was meant, Capt. 
Smith, who was bent on Wintering above the 
Fadory, as he could not winter at Port Nelfon^ 
not thinking it worth his Time to inquire. That 
Night the Ship was moved to the Birth intended 
for her in the Morning. 

The next Day both the Captains fet out again, g^ 
flaying out all that Night, which they fpent in 
the Woods by a Fire, and at this Time concluded 
on a Place for Wintering. The People aboard 
the California were iteployed in the Interim in 
clearing a high Plot of Ground afhore, carrying 
Stores there, and ere6ling a Tent with Sails to 
keep fuch Stores from the Weather ; built alio a 
Sail-Tent for two Land-men to watch in, who 
alfo took it by Turns to go a Shooting, and 
from them we had a fmali Supply of GeefCi 
Ducks, and Plover. 


128 ./f V o Y A G E for the 

ieptember. Qn the Tenth the California being lightened, 
and in Part unrigged, went up a-breaft of the 
Faftory, faluting the Governor with feven Guns, 
which Salute was not anfwered until two Hours 
after ; expeding the Bohhs who touched in com- 
ing up, and did not get off that Tide. The 
Governor alfo made a Prefent in the Evening of 
ten frefh Geefe, with a Sallad of Lettuce and 
CrefTes ; both the Lettuce and Crefles very good 
of the Kind. 

The Situation of the Faftory is a clear Space 
made in the Woods, which furround it on three 
Sides, the Factory having an open Front to the 
Water, from which it Hands a fmall Diflance 
within the Bank •, to the North and Eaftward 
covered with a good Battery, and to the South-Eafl 
is a Dock for building or repairing either Sloops 
or Boats •, behind the Battery, and between that 
and the Dock, there is a Space of Land which 
they call the Plantation, and here the Indians 
who come to the Factory pitch their Tents ; and 
there is generally a Tent or two of old and infirm 
Indians, both Men and Women, who get their 
Maintenance from the Factory. This Part, which 
is on the Back of the Battery and Dock, and cal- 
led the Plantation, is feparated from the Fadory 
by two Rows of high PalifiTades, between the firil 
of which and the fecond, are Store-houfes, the 
Cookery, and fome Work-fliops, low built, and 
fo placed as they would be of little Service to an 
Enemy to cover an Attack of the Place. Within 



DiJcofuer}> of a North-JVeft Pajfage, 1 29 

the inner Paliflades are fmall Spots of Turnips, September. 
Collards, Sallads, and other Garden Stuff, be- 
longing to the Governor and Officers. From 
the Plantation, or from the firft Entering of the 
Pahflades to the Fadory, you walk on a wooden 
Platform. The Faftory itfelf is a fquare Fort, 
having four Baftions, two Stories high, with a 
Platform on the Top leaded, and a Parapet, 
where they have fome Cannon. The Fadory is 
of Wood, built of large Logs of Trees, plained 
on three Sides, laid one on the other, and pegg'd 
together with large wooden Pins •, to the Front 
they put a plain Side of the Logs, and the 
Front is painted white. In the Center of each 
Curtain there projedls in the fecond Story a clofe 
Lanthern, a half Circle ♦, in which nor in any Part 
of the Baftions are there any Ports for Cannon, 
but Loops for fmall Arms. "When you go into 
the Factory there is a handfome Area j the Fac- 
tory is much handfomer within than on the Out- 

In the upper Story of the South-Eaft Eaflion 
is the Governor's Apartment, to which there is 
a handfome Fhght of wooden Steps out of the 
Area. His Apartment confifts of four Rooms, 
with a Fire-Place in the largeft ; the Rooms 
wainfcotted, and neatly fitted up. Under the 
Governor's Apartment is the common Room for 
the Deputy-Governor and principal Handicrafts, 
as the Ship and Houfe-Carpenter, and others, 
who compofe the Governor's Mefs j in which is 

S a l^rge 

13© u^ V o Y A G E for the 

September, a large brick Stove ere(5ted for warming both this 
and the Governor's Apartment. Afide this 
Room are there feveral Cabins, in each of 
which there is a Bed-place, and befides Room 
for four or five People to fit commodioufly, 
and every Cabin hath a Light into it. In the 
North -Eaft Baftion, in the lower Part, is alfo a 
common Room, with a Stove of Brick for warm- 
ing the Apartments ; and in this Baftion are 
lodged the Steward and Cook, and all others 
(excepting the Surgeon) who are not of the Go- 
vernor's Mefs. The other two Baftions, and the 
Curtains, are divided into Store-houfes, a Trad- 
ing- room, a Magazine, ^c. 

The Building hath but a mean Appearance on 
the Outfide, but it is warm and convenient for 
the Purpofe it is built for, and the Workmanftiip 
good of the Kind. From the Platform on the 
Top of the Faftory you have a Profpedt over the 
Woods a long Way, feeing Hills to the South- 
Eaft, which are about twenty, or five-and-twenty 
Miles diftant. Between which the Country is alj 
low and flat ; fo is alfo the Ifland on which the 
Faftory ftands. Thefe Hills are the Spots to 
form a right Judgment of the Climate of this 
Country ; but what is perceived in that refpeft 
at the Fadory, or within ten Miles round it, or 
where thofe who belonged to the Ships were 
obliged to winter, we may reafonably fuppofe 
bears no more Analogy with the Climate of the 
Inland Country, or of thofe higher Lands we fee 

jbtfcovery of a Nortb-tFeJi Pajfage. t3 1 

from the Fadory, than what is found at the Iflc Seprcmben 
of Shepey, or Hundreds of EJfex^ does with the 
Upland Country of EJfex or Kent^ or the major 
Part of England befides. 

The Ship continuing off the Fadory, the Peo* 
pie were imployed in getting afliore the dry Pro- 
vifionSj the Brandy, and what required a fafef 
Cuftody, into a Store-houfe at the Fadory, lent 
by the Governor. Alfo fome were employed 
jointly with Capt. Moor^% People in digging a 
Hole on the Plantation for to put fome Beer in, 
to fecure it during the Winter •, on which they 
proceeded very flowly, having after the firft three 
Feet, which was a kind of Loam^ met with a 
frozen Part, that continued as low as they dug. 
It looked like a lead -coloured fleaky Stone, chip- 
ped and flew like it when broke by the Pick-axe ; 
taken in the Hand was hcavy^ and cold as a Piece 
of Ice J but then it foon thawed or crumbled ; the 
Particles of Sand of which it was compofed quick- 
ly feparating from each other. 

The Wood which is on the three Sides of the 
Fadory, and fo of the Woods of the whole 
Ifland, is of Pine and Juniper, both but fmall, the 
Pine-Trees twenty to thirty Feet high, and abour 
fifteen or twenty Inches round ; the Juniper-Trees 
not above thirteen or fourteen Feet high ; and 
the Trees grow at fuch a Diftance from each 
other, as the Woods are no way thick. There is 
alfo Poplar and Alder, with Bufhes and thick 

S 7. Bram- 

132 A V o Y A e E /or the 

Sepxmber. Brambles, and amongft the Bullies wild Cur- 
rants, with white and red Gooleberry-bu(hes> 
which bear a Fruit. There is alfo long Grafs 
and Mofs, amongft which there grows a great 
Number of Dewatterberries, and alfo Cranberries. 
The \Voods are intermixed with open Plains » 
the Ground of both very marfliy, and in many 
Places Bogs. 

The California^ it being then the Time of 
Spring Tides, went from the Fadlory Saturday 

20th. September the twentieth, the Dobbs having gone 
fome Days before, aflifted by the People of the 

23d. California •, and at Noon of the twenty-third 
both Ships were in the Birth intended them for 
that Seafon, about two hundred Yards up a Nar- 
row that is about four Miles from the Faftory^ 
and called Ten Shilling Creek, but not prpperly, 
it bemg a Branch of the great River from which 
it feparates about thirty Miles above this Entrance 
where the Ships lay, and by which it rejoins the 
great River again. It is of the Width of about 
two Ships at the Entrance, which Width it con- 
tinues not above a Mile up, then afterwards nar- 
rowing ; hath Banks which are rather fteep, 
and about fifty Feet in Height, thick covered 
with Brufh, or Poplar, and Alder, from High- 
. Water Mark to the Top •, and on the Top of the 
Banks are W^oods of Poplar, Pine, and Juniper, 
which even at the Time the Ships arrived there 
looked very agreeable and pleafant» 


Difcovery of a North-JVefl Tafjage. 133 

The Ships being fecured, the building a Houfe, Sepjpmber. 
and providing Fuel, was next undertaken, but 
the greateft Part of the Hands were imployed in 
clearing the Spot the Houfe was to be built on, the 
providing fitting Timber, carrying it thither, and 
the Sawing of Plank (being provided with Saws 
which were brought out of England^ upon the 
thirtieth of September four Pieces of Timber were -q^j, 
laid for the Foundation, and a brick Stove begun 
with Mortar and Bricks with which we were fup- 
plied by the Governor^ who alfo fent the Brick- 
layer of the Fa6lory to build it j but there not 
being Materials to build two Stoves, the Captains 
were put under aNeceflity to ered but one Houfe, 
and live together. 

The Houfe was twenty Feet in Length, fix- 
teen in Breadth, and in Height eighteen, con fill- 
ing of two Stories, built of Logs of Wood laid 
one on the other, with two Sides plain or fayed, 
that they might be the clofer \ alfo between every 
two Logs Mofs put, and the Mofs of every Seam 
daubed on the Outfide with a Loam or Kind of 
Clay, made up of Water and the Soil, which is 
almoft all a Marie ; which Loam by freezing be- 
coming folid, prevents any Wind or Air from 
pafling between fuch Logs. The Roof, which 
was (helving, was of Planks tightly caulked, as 
a Ship's Side. The upper Story had the two 
Captains Cabins in Front, and the Landing of 
the Staiiis. Thefe Cabins opened into a Faflage 


134 -^ Voyage for the 

September- which reached the Length of the Houfe of more 
than three Feet in Width, with a Light at each 
End i and on the other Side of fuch Paflage 
were a Row of Cabins for the Officers of both 
Ships, half to one, half to the other. The lower 
Story, in the Middle of which was the Stove, 
was alfo divided, one Side belonging to one Ship's 
Company, the other to the other. In this Story 
the Surgeon had his Cabin ; the Mate, the Car- 
penter, the Cook, the Captains Servants, and 
others whom it was neceflary to have, for faw- 
ing the Wood for the Stove, lighting the Stove, 
and other neceflary Jobs, were alfo lodged here. 
And the Cabins were fo conveniently contrived 
as fourteen of the California^ ^ People were en- 
tertained in the Houfe, exclufive of the Captain.. 
This Story had no Light, but what came in by 
the Doors (as the upper one had) was floored, 
and each Captain had a Cellar underneath the 

The Stove was fuppliedj and lighted^ one 
Week by one Ship's Company, the other Week 
by the other, fo alternately ; and was always in 
Capt. Smith's Week, lighted in the Morning, at 
Noon, and at Night. To fire thefe Stoves they 
artfully, within the Stove, in about a Foot of the 
Stove's Mouth, pile up, one on the other. Pieces- 
of Wood about eighteen Inches in Length, three 
in Circumference, until the Stove is full to the 
Top ; then place dry Pieces, of lefs Size, before 
that Wood, to which they put a Light, and the 


J)ifcovery of a Nortb-WeJI P of age', l%^ 

Draught of the Stove foon makes a Fire. When September, 
the Wood is burnt to a Coal, they, with a Rake, 
bring it forward to the Stove's Mouth •, there 
beat the Coals fmall, and if there is any fmoak- 
ing Piece, they pick fuch Bits out, and carry 
them away \ and a Cover being then put on the 
Top of the Chimney, of the Outfide the Houfe 
(there being a Ladder always ready for the going • 
up to do it) by fuch Means the Heat is confined 
in the Houfe, and it will be warm fome Hours. 
The Stove which was firft eredted (but afterwards, 
being ready to fall, taken down, and a lefs erect- 
ed) warmed the Houfe to that Degree as to 
to melt the Candles, and not to admit the Lying 
covered a Bed \ and with the other Stove, if duly 
lighted, thofe in the Houfe could have no Senfe 
of Cold. The Stove which confumed a vaft 
Quantity of Fuel, was fupplied from two Piles 
pf Wood, that were procured by the Ships Com- 
panies, each Ship's Company one, and were 
placed at a fmall Diftance from the Houfe. 

At fome Diftance from the Front of the Houfe, 
and to the Right of it, was the Cookery, which 
was, as they term it in thefe Parts, a Log Tent. 
Thefe Tents are built by putting a Pole, four-, 
teen or fixteen Feet long, between two Trees, 
and as high as it is intended the Tent fhould be» 
ten or twelve Feet -, then leaning againft this 
Pole on both Sides, leaving only three Feet on 
the South Side, for a Door Way, large Logs of 
WQPd unbarked, their Tops meeting above the 


136 A V o^ AG -E for the 

September- Pole ; and thofe on one Side over-fhooting the 
other. At Bottom thefe Logs are extended the 
Width they intend the Tent, the Shape of the 
Tent refembhng the Eves of a Houfe ; and the 
Ends are alfo of the fame Kind of Logs as the 
Sides ; the Parting between the Logs being filled 
with Mofs, and daubed over with a Mixture of 
the Soil and Water. The Height of the Door is 
four Feet and a Half, and above that, from the 
Logs, to Right and Left, there is a Crofs- Piece, 
and another near the Top, upon which Lt)gs are 
laid, fo to fill up the Vacancy which there is 
above, between the Logs, to Right and Left of 
the Door ; but the Crofs-Pieces caufing thefe 
Logs to lie hollow, fo as not to touch the Ridge- 
Pole, and as many Logs on the oppofite Side the 
Tent being alfo hollow, from the Ridge-Pole, 
by a Crofs- Piece near the Top, thefe Logs do 
not meet, but leave an Opening, which anfwers 
the Purpofe of a Chimney •, and is alfo the only 
Conveyance by which they have any Light. Un- 
der this Opening, within Side the Tent, they form 
the Hearth of Earth, about three Feet fquare, 
and one high, which they build round with Log5 
to prevent the Earth mouldering or falling away. 
At about four Feet from each End of the Tent 
they place acrofs the Tent, Seat high, a large 
fquare Log-, and from thefe Logs there is an- 
other palTes Endways on that Side the Tent, op- 
pofite to the Door. The Ufe of placing thefe 
Logs fo, is for Seats round the Fire, and the 
End Logs alfo keep in the Bed-Cloaths ; for in 



Difcovery of a 'North-Weft Pajfage. 137 

that Space of Time, Wet, between thofe Logs September, 
and the Ends are the Beds put, two at each End, 
each Bed holding two, they lying with their Heads 
to the Sides of the Tent, and Feet inwards. The 
Beds are not laid on the Ground, but they gather 
aQiiantity of fmall Pine-Tops, which is laid firft, 
and fo raife the Bed about a Foot or more from 
the Ground. The Log which runs between the 
two Logs and Sideways, marks out a Place be- 
hind it for their Chefts, their Kettles, i£c. 

The Cookery was a Tent of this Kind, as to 
the outward Form and Hearth, but not the Lodg- 
ing-Part, the Cooks being lodged in the Houfe. 
Upon the Left-hand of the Houfe were alfo two 
other Log- Tents j but they were without Chim- 
neys ; one belonging to each Ship •, and were 

While the Houfe was carrying on;, three other 
Tents were alfo built for wintering thofe People 
of the California who could not be entertained in 
the Houfe. Capt. Moor built alfo Tents of the 
fame Kind for his People. The Tents built for 
the California People were, one about fix Miles 
off, as being a Sporting Country ; another about 
a Mile 5 and a third about a Mile and half off 5 
all in pleafant Situations, furroundcd with Woods, 
two of them near to the "^en Shilling Creek ; the 
moft diftant one near to a Creek in that Part 
which they called French Creek. Their Situation 
hear a Creek is requifite, tiiat Ice may be come 

T at 

13^ ^ y OY AG ^ for the 

Sepiembe--. at in Winter ; and the Creek fervcs as a Road 
alio for ii\t more convenient Draught of Provi- 
fions in "Winter. Thefe Tents are placed iri 
Yv^Qods, not only for Warmth-fake, but alfo on 
Account of getting Fuel \ and therefore choofe 
fuch Parts in which there is mod dry Wood for 
Filing (by which is meant fuch Wood as is upon 
r.iC Decay, but not yet become rotten). They 
are alfo placed at a Diftance from each other, 
both on the Account of tlunting, as if two Tentsi 
near to each other would interfere with each 
other's Garne.. They are alfp feparated, that 
they may not fteal each other's Firing, or cut 
down each other's V/ood ; for there is a kind of 
iProperty whicii follows on the Erecting of every 
Tent -, no Man having a Right to cut a Stick 
■within fuch a Diftance of that Tent, as any one 
in that Tent can carry Home a Stick from on 
his Shoulder without refting. Three Men, with 
great Safe, will finiih one of thefe Tents in ^ 
Couple of Days, 

The Houfe was fituate in a Wood, about- 
Half a Mile from where the Ships lay ; between 
which and the Houfe, there was a turning Walk 
cut through the Wood. The Houfe alfolook'd 
upon a Creek, afide of which it flood, on a rifing 
Ground, ar a fmall Diflance from it. In the Creek 
is Plenty of Water, the Shores broad,' and of gra- 
dual Aicent, covered with Poplar j and upon the 
Banks fpirinp: Pines, for more than a Mile in 
|.ength. ThePlenty of Water was not natural to the 


Difcbvery of a North-Weji PaJJage. 1 3 9 

!*lacc, but owing to its being kept up by Dams, September, 
the Work • of the Beavers -, which Animals had 
aifo built a Houfe on the Side of this Creek. 

There were three Dams, two on oiie Side the 
Beaver -houfe, and another beyond on the other 
Side. The firft of which was about a Mile off 
the Beaver- houfe, and reaches a-crofs almoll frorti 
one Bank-edge to the other, running high up 
the Shore ; and is about fifty-feven Feet in Length. 
At each End the Dam begins nntich like to a 
Turf, or Clod of Earth turned up -, from thence 
it is continued level, and in a ftraight Line, for 
about the Length of nine Feet, with an Increafe 
in the Width, as it grows in Length ; the Defcent 
of the Shore being very gradual, the exterior Side 
of the Dam is not at this Length of nine Feet, 
exceeding fix Inches in Height above the Surface, 
but the interior Side of the Dam, which is made 
with a fharp Sloap, is about a Foot and Half 
above the Surface, on that Side. And the Kea- 
fon why the interior Side of the Dam is fo much 
deeper than the Exterior, is, that all the Earth 
which is heaped up for the Dam is taken from the 
Infide-. The Width of the Top of the Dam is 
here three Feet. The Dam then turns circular, 
forming a Figure, whole chord Line is twei;ty- 
feven Feet, and Radius nine Feet. And upon 
the Top of the Dam, in the Center of it, is a 
Cut, of about two Feet and a Half in Width, 
fix Inches in Depth -, by which the Water conti- 
nually falls into a narrow Channel of no more 

T 2 than 

140 ^ Vo Y A G E for the 

Sppfembe--. than three Feet in Width, that vents itfelf in I'en 
Shilling Creek •, but the Water which fupphes 
fuch Cut is within fide, and clcfe to the Dam 
twenty Feet broad -, the perpendicular Height of 
the Dum on the exterior Side, neareft either End 
of the Cut (through which the Water falls) is 
two Feet and a half above the Surface, but as it 
is made with a Sloap, the Length of the Sloap is 
three Feet and a half, the interior Side is more 
than two Feet perpendicular, then with a Sloap, 
which on account of the Ice, I could not mea- 
fure. Where the Form of the Dam is circular, the 
Top of the Dam is in that Part about three Feet 
and a half broad, with a Sloap inward. 

There is no lefs Regularity obferved in getting 
this Earth from the Infide, than in the reft of 
their Workmanlhip ; at either End of the Dam, 
the Earth is taken up within a Foot of fuch End \ 
as the Dam widens and heightens, they go further 
for the Earth, and where the Dam turned off, or 
at the End of nine Feet, they had gone five Feet 
to fetch the Earth, and, to form that Part of the 
Dam where the Cut was, they had gone four 
and twenty Feet to fetch the Earth, as nearly 
oppofite to it as the Creek would let them ; in 
taking up this Earth, they did not work level : 
At the Part next the Dam, they took moft and 
deepeft, and next to that lefs, and fo lefTened in 
the Depth in Proportion as they proceeded ; that 
•which they took up, at the extreme Parts from 
'^hich they fetched it, was onlv thick Swade or 


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CS^r- {7/,r/r/t<'/^ MW/iV/WA' //•/if . 

Difcovery of a North-Weft "Pafjage, 1 4 \ 

Turf. The Space from which they fo take it is September- 
circular, and, from the Manner of their taking it 
up, lies with a Declivity towards the Dam. 
By taking the Earth up after this Manner on the 
Infide, at the fame Time they are building 
their Dam, they are a; "Work on their Refervoir 
behind it. 

When they begin to make their Dam, to 
which, as already mentioned, they take up the 
Earth from the Infide the Dam, they do not 
even at the Beginning or Surface work direftly 
down, but flopingly, which makes the Sloap 
pf the interior Side of the Dam ; and, taking the 
moft Earth up clofe to the Infide of the Dam to 
lay on the Surface, the Part they take this 
Earth from becomes the lower Part of the Dam ; 
and fo the lower Part of the Dam is folid Earth, 
not to be hurt by any Flood, and the upper Part 
of the Dam which is the Soil, mixed with Stones, 
and fmall Sticks of Poplar, about three Fingers 
thick, the Sticks laid flat, and others ftick ob- 
liquely, and all covered on the Outfide with Turf, 
or Sod, upon which there growsGrafs, can be only 
overturned or damaged by the Flood ; and, if 
this happens, there will yet be the lower Part of 
the Dam that will prevent the Water from run- 
ning intirely out. 

The fecond Dam, or that nearer the Houfe^ 
is made after the fame Manner of the firft juft 
^efcribed, but is of greater Width, being eighty- 

142 '^Voyage for the 

September, four Feet. The moft obfervable Difference js 
the Variety of their Shape, this approaching 
nearer to a flraight Line, than the firft Damj 
and therefore the Water fpreads more behind this 
fecond Dam, than behind the firft \ but the firft^ 
being more circularj coIle6ts the Water more to 
a Head, and by the Cut, as was obfervable, there: 
was a freer Pafs for the Water, than by the Cut 
of the fecond j tho* that was more open, being 
damaged, and in fome Part broken down ; fd 
that the fecond Dam cannot overflow the firft, 
as the firft draws the Water from the fecond, ia 
more or lefs Proportion as the lirft can vent it. 

The Beaver Houfe is about a quarter of a 
Mile beyond the fecond Dam, fo fituated as to 
be furrounded about three Parts with Water, the 
< other Part joined to the Land •, it is round with 

an oval Dome at the Top j the H eighth above 
the Surface of the Water is eight Feet, about 
forty Feet in Diameter^ and in Circumference 
about ari hundred and twenty ; and this Propor- 
tion here between a Diameter and a Circle, how 
particular foever it may feem, was found to bei 
Fadt, after repeated Meafurings made on the Ice 
before the Snow was of any Thicknefs. The Part 
which adjoins to the Bank is not made out of 
the Bank, but of the fame Materials as the reft ; 
the Bottom Part of the Houfe is Earth or Soil, 
with Pieces of Wood laid in it, of about three 
Inches Circumference ; then a Parcel of Poplar 
Sticks which are laid with one End in the Houfe^ 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Pajfage. H% 

and the other Qanting a long Way under Water, September, 
then a Layer of Earth, or Soil again ; then Pop- 
lar Sticks and thefe Layers of Earth, and the Pop- 
lar Sticks do not exceed eighteer? Inches in Height j 
and, quite from them to the Summit of the Houfe, 
there are Soil Stones and fmall Sticks all artfully 
put together as in the upper Part of the Dams, 
and the whole covered with Sods, long Grafs 
growing thereon, and on the upper Part Wil- 
lows. The largeft Wood I faw ufed about the 
Houfe was two Pieces of Poplar, which was 
near the Top, with their largeft End out j the 
one three Inches, the other two Inches Diameter j 
what their Length was I could not judge, by 
reafon they were within ^he Houfe. AH the reft 
was fmall Stuff, not above two or three Fingers 
thick. The Houfe is built that the outermoft 
Part of it doth not ftand further out into the 
Creek than the Edge of the Shore, but what 
brings the Water fo much rpund it (except the 
Creek in Front) is that the Houfe, being buik 
pf ;he Earth or Soil clofe to where it ftands, the 
taking that Soil hath made twoTrenches, one ort 
each Side, which are in the broadeft Part nine 
Feet, narrowing as they approach the Bank, and 
eighteen Feet long, receiving the Water of the 
Creek ; having feemingly a Depth of Water at 
their Entrance, but Ihallowing towards the Bank* 
71ie Creek, at the Front of the Houfe, is fix 
and thirty Feet broad, feemingly deep, and conr 
finues deep, though narrower, to the Dam, and, 
.«*♦< between 

32f4 A V OY AG'E for the 

Sepiember. between thefecond Dam and the firfV, the Watef 
is much fhallower, tho' deeper in fome Parts 
than others ; and the Creek again narrower, but 
in no Part lefs than from fourteen to eighteen Feet 
broad, moftly above twenty j the Houfe is tigh^ 
and hard put together, requiring an Ax to break 
into it, and, when the Froft is fet in, almoft im- 

Fromi the Houfe there were feveral Paths into 
the Wood, the Track of which much refembles 
that of a common Foot-path, the Ufe of which 
Path is to draw down out of the Wood the 
Sticks or Trees which they have there got, either 
for Food or Building •, and they bite off all the 
Twigs, or Pieces of Willow and Poplar which 
grow a-crofs, or in the Way, to make a free 

The third and laft Dam is about three hun- 
dred Yards beyond the Houfe, but the Creek is 
loft in a Swamp within about fifty Yards of the 
Houfe, fo that the Water of this Creek is no 
more than the Draining of thefe Swamps, and of 
the Land near to it, penned up by the Dams 
beyond the Houfe ; before yoU' come at the 
Swamp, the Land on each Side the Creek falls 
low •, there is no more Pine- Wood, only Poplar- 
Bruih •, and the Land here defcends towards the 
great River, which is about half a Mile off •, be- 
yond the Swamp a Parcel of Water, then a 
Swamp again for fome Length, beyond that a 


Difcovery of a North-Wefi P of age, 145" 

narrow Channel for upwards of an hundred Yards, SLptember. 
much hke a common Ditch, but deep, which, as 
the Land declines, would empty itfelf into tha 
great River, but it is the third Dam which 
runs athwart here that caufes this Colledlion of 
Water, and, is a Prevention of the Water 
running off, altering its Courfe and confining it 
to fup ply the Vent of the Dams on the other 
Side the Houfe, and the Pieces of Swamp be- 
tween this Channel and the Creek-head, keep 
the Water as it drains through them, from goins: 
down fafter, than the Dams which arc below the 
Houfe demand it. 

This third and laft Dam much different 
from the other, is made on even Ground •, it is 
in a dired Line for twelve Feet •, on that Part next 
the great River, or on the Outfide •, from the 
Houfe the perpendicular Height is two Feet, 
Sloap three Feet, four Feet broad on the Top, 
which ilants towards the great River-, the Infide 
).s three Feet perpendicular, Sloap five Feet ; the 
Earth from v/hich it is made is fetched from the 
Infide, as is done at the ether Dams, but the 
further Parts from which it is fetched, not ?.bove 
twelve Feet diftant ; and at the Place from wliich 
it is fetched there is deep Water ; to the right 
of this Part of the Dam twelve Feet long, the 
Dam is continued about l^n Yards, and to the 
left which is a lower Fart thirty ; but the Dam 
falls foon to a Foot and a half, a Foot in Height, 
and tl) lefs. and then no better than a Plough- 
U . Ridge: 

146 A Voyage for the 

September. Ridge: This Dam hath no Cut on the Top of 
it, as the others, to let the Water off. 

This Houfe was faid to have no Beavers in it, 
by Reafon they had been difturbed-, for, when 
once Beavers are difturbed, they immediately 
quit that Habitation. The Indians know in the 
Summer Seafon, whether the Beavers inhabit a 
Houfe or not, by looking on the Stems of the 
Poplar, the upper Part, or Branches of which 
have been bit off, and feeing whether the Marks 
of their Teeth are frefh or not-, for it is with their 
fore Teeth, which are fhaped like thofe of a Ra- 
bit, that they cut down all their Wood, and the 
Pieces, where cut, look as if they had been cut 
by a Cooper's Gouge : If the Marks are frefh^ 
they then know that the Houfe is not forfaken. 
The Indians alfo know by the Mark which their 
Teeth leave, what kind of Beavers there are in 
fuch Houfe, their Age and Number ; at a Birth 
they have from two to five, and not more, and 
breed Annually. 

The Indians fometimes Ihoot them, which they 
do by getting to the Leeward of the Beavers ; and 
they muft make Ufe of fome Dexterity, for the 
Beaver is an extreme Ihy Animal, fharp at Hear- 
ing, and of a quick Scent •, and the Opportu- 
nities they have of Ihooting them is at fuch Times 
as the Beavers are at Work, or when Afhore to 
feed on the Poplar. They work in the Morning 
and Evening, when every Thing is quiet,; while 


Di/coveryofaNorth'WeJiPaJfage, 147 

at Work they will flop all ofaSudden,andliften Sepiember. 
if they can hear any Thing, and if they do, jump 
into the Water immediately, continue in the Wa- 
ter a Time, and then rife at a large Diftance from 
where they are at firft feen. They are fometimes 
taken by Traps, which is a very fimple Contri- 
var.c- ; the Bait is Poplar-Sticks, laid in a Path, 
and near to the Water ; which, if the Beaver be- 
gin to feed on, then a large Log of Wood falls 
on their Necks. At the fetting of thefe 
Traps, the Indians firft wafli their Hands, and 
ufe all poffible Means that the Poplar, with which 
they fet thefe Traps, fhall not fmell of their 
Hands, for then the Beaver would not come near 
it. This is the Way of getting them moft ufed, 
it being eafier than that of fhooting them ; the 
Gun being apt to tear the Skin, and make it the 
Icfs valuable. 

The Beaver comes not upon the Land in the 
Winter, but then they attack him in his Houfe, 
and his Skin is reckoned in the higheft Perfection 
about Chrifimas, To take the Beaver in Winter, 
they break the Ice at a Diftance from the Houfe 
in two Places, the one behind the other, and in 
both Places from the Shore (the Houfe ftanding 
ufually two Thirds in Water, j on one Side the 
Houfe, to the Shore on the other Side of it •, that 
is, before the Front of the Houfe, from Shore to 
Shore : Then they take away the broken Ico. 
with a Kind of a Racket, for other wife that loofe 
Ice would hinder them from feeing where to place 

U 2 their 

14S -^Voyage for the 

September, their Stakes, which th?y do at both Places v/here 
they have fo broke the Ice, as alfo a Net at each 
Place. The Nets are of a large Mafli, and fome- 
times eight or ten Fathom in Length, either made 
of Twine, bought at the Faftories, or of Deer- 
Skin, cut into Thongs \ and with thefe Stakes and 
Nets the Houfe is inclofed, and the Beaver cannot 
efcape by Water. When the Nets and Stakes are 
fixedj they then go to breaking up the Houfe, and 
when broke up, turn in their Dog ; the Beaver 
frightened, immediately quits the Floufe, the En-^ 
trance to which is always by a Hole from the Wa- 
ter, never by the Land-way. The Beaver taking 
the Water, is deceived by the Mafhes of the Net, 
and isToon intangled in it •, and as foon as intangled, 
o-ive Notice by ringing a Bell, which is affixed at 
the Top of the Net, The Indians^ who are not 
Mailers of a Bell, watch if the Water rifes, and if 
it does, they immediately up with the Net. If 
they have fucceeded, they are as expeditious as 
poffible in getting out the Beaver, and in putting 
down the Net again. Sometimes the Beaver will 
return, when they find they cannot get further 
than the Net, to the Houfe, and there be taken, 
and knocked on the Head •, firll making a great 
Moan, v/hich according to common Report, and 
of thofe who hive told me they have feen it (but 
how fir to be credited I will not {r-j) was much 
like the Moan of a Human, fitting on their hinder 
parts, rubbing their fore Pav/s together, and 
Tears running from their Eyes. 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl Pajfage. 149 

When they take a Houfe of them, they' gene- September 
rally leave two to breed. The Beaver is a valu- 
able Booty to the Indian^ both as it is excellent 
Food, and alfo as it affords him the beft of his 
Cloathing -, and as it is a Commodity for him be- 
fides to trade with. The Indians make Ufe 
of the Teeth of Beavers to fharpen their Knives, 
or any other iron Tools. 

Befides this Beaver-Houfe mentioned, there is 
another, larger, which is built in a hollow Way, 
through which there is a fmall Cut or Channel of 
V/ater •, at the Foot of this Cut ftands the Houfe, 
but the Foundation of this is on much higher 
Ground than that of the other Houfe, though this 
Houfe is of the fame Shape with the other. Be- 
low the Houfe there is a broad Place, out of which 
they feem to have taken the Earth, of which they 
made a Dam, fix Feet perpendicular in Height, 
in Form much after thofe mentioned •, but it be- 
ing in the Mid ft of Winter when I firft heard of 
this Houfe, and the Snow then on the Ground, 
I could not take the Dimenfions. The Spot from 
which they took the Earth feemed to form a large 
Pond, and as if the Water at fome Times rofe 
very high in it ; and which I take to be theRea- 
fon of the Houfe being built on fo high a Foun- 
dation. Between this Dam and the River was half 
a Mile, and in that Space there were two more 
Dams, but both of them as large as the firfl. The 
Materials of thefe Dams were the fame as thofe of 


150 A V OY AOE for th& 

Sz^i^vtihit. Beaver Creek, of Stones, Poplar-Sticks, and 
Earth, mixed together, and plaiftered or covered 
with a Kind of Marie, as I perceived by one of 
them, after clearing away the Snow. There was 
aDamalfo crofs the narrow Cut above the Houfe, 
but in Ruins ; for this Houfe, as we)l as that at 
Beaver Creek, was uninhabited. 

As to the Infide of thefe Houfes, I cannot fay 
any Thing as to my own Knowledge, by Reafon 
I had no Opportunity of feeing them, or getting 
them broke into. By the beft Information 1 could 
get from thofe who have feen the Infide of Beaver- 
Houfes, I find that the common received Opinion 
of their building feveral Stories in them, one a- 
bove the other, is quite fi6titious •, they re- 
port that the Floor is high, fo as when you are 
in, it much refembles an Oven •, that the Beavers 
have one Spot near the Water's Edge, where they 
lie upon dry Grafs, ready to dive into the Water 
on hearing a Noife. In another Part there is the 
Poplar (which they provide in the Summer againft 
the Winter) the greater Length of which lies out 
of the Houfe in the Water, which they pull in as. 
they want it. In another Part is their Dung, or 
Soil, which they are under a Neceflity of laying 
there -, for if they voided it in the Water, and efpe- 
cially in frofty Weather, their Entrance would foon. 
be choaked up. 

What the Beaver feeds on is only the Bark and 
Jlhind of the Poplar, not the Wood •, they alfo feed 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pag'age, 151 

on a Weed which grows at the Bottom of the September. 
Water. They are in themfelves far from defpi- 
cable Meati as to its Appearance, it is like Mut- 
ton, but, as to the Tafte, it hath a great Refem- 
blance of Pork. It is a ftrong Meat, and very 
fatiating. The moft delicate Part is the Tail •, the 
Meat of it is much different from that of the 
Body, being a Lump of hard Fat and Sinews. 

The Beavers are remarkably affefbionate the 
one to the other. Two of them were catched 
when about fix Weeks old, and brought alive to 
oae of the Hudfon\ Bay Fadories, v/here they 
were preferved by Pieces of Poplar put in Water, 
and a Place made for them to lodge in •, they 
throve for near two Months, when one Night one 
of them, by a Fall from the Parapet at the Top 
of the Factory, was killed -, the other was' per- 
ceived the next Day to moan, to eat nothing, and 
fo he continued to do for four Days, and then 

We have mentioned the Number of white 
Whales feen off the Entrance of Hays\ River, 
whfeh were then thought to be a Sign that the 
Winter was not fo near as expedled ; and, until 
the fecond of September, we had clear, warm, 
beautiful Weather, two Days together, like to 
which we had not feen fince leaving the Orkneys, 
fuch Weather as is unufual at this Time of the 
Year in thefe Parts. The Faftory-People told 
us, it was the only warm and pleafant Weather 


I j2 A Voyage for the 

September, that they had enjoyed this Year, having had, in 
the Summer Qtiarter. very indifferent Weather, 
and, before that, a late and bad Spring. They 
alfo judged, though the Geefe came in Plenty from 
the Northward, or North- Weftward, that we 
fhould not have Winter yet, though this was the 
ufual Time in moil Years for the Winter's letting 
in ; and their Reafon was, becaufe the young 
Geefe could butjuft fly, and were very thin. 

On the fecond of September we had an Altera- 
tion of the Weather, the calm and moderate 
changing to windy Weather, and the warm 
Weather changing to Chill, and, in a few Days, 
to Cold, with Froft on fome Nights, hard Gales 
of Wind, and cloudy Weather, with Rain, which 
was the Kind of Weather that lafted to the twelfth. 
The thirteenth and fourteenth of September were 
windy, with Falls of Sleet ; and on thefe two 
Days faw many Geefe -, the Shore of Hays's Ri- 
ver, South -Eaft from the Fa6lory, appearing 
white with their Numbers j which, on, the fif- 
teenth, it being cloudy Weather, witha frefh Wind 
Wefterly, flew very high, and took away to the 
Southward, accompanied with a great Number 
of Ducks and Plover. 

The fixteenth we had our firft Snow •, the fe- 
venteenth Wind, with Rain and Sleet i the eight- 
eenth Snow again, and, on the nineteenth, the 
Frofl was fo advanced, that wetLinnen, hung out^ 
immediately froze •, but, on the twentieth, it was 


Bifcovery of a Ni)rth'WeJl Pafage. 155 

open funfhiny Weather, and lefs cold. On the September, 
twenty-firft there was a thick wetting Fog all Day •, 
the twenty-fecond thick and hazy •, the twenty- 
third a dark dull Day ; the twenty-fourth thick 
Weather, with Milling in the Morning, the reft 
of the Day dark and dull, with fome Rain at 
Noon, very cold. On the twenty- fifth there 
was a hard Froft, a clear Day, with Sunfliine ; 
in the Afternoon the Weather no Way cold, nor 
any Froft at Night •, and fuch Weather continued 
to the twenty-ninth. So, from the fecond to the 
twenty-ninth, we had Weather much reiembling 
the Winter Weather in England, not only in be- 
ing as cold fome Days as it is at any Time in 
Winter in England, but in the Weather being 
equally inconftant and variabj^e with what it is 

On the twenty-ninth the Wind, which had 
been for fome Days moderate, frefhened, and 
blowed hard s a great Noife of Geefe in the Morn- 
ing, before Day-Light and after, and feveral 
Flights of feventy or eighty pafs. The Sun, 
which ihon^ out pleafantly in the Morning, was 
foon veiled with a thick Haze, and there conti- 
nued falling all Day a fmall Rain, making it raw 
and unpleafant: Towards Night it grew very 
cold •, it fnowed all Night, and froze very hard -, 
the fame on the next day •, and the Froft now fet 
in to be continual. 

X The 


154 1/f V o Y A G E for the 

O.lober. The Weather, now grown to be very cold, be- 
gan to be more fettled. Between the firft and the 
the thirteenth of Ooiober there were, at Times, 
Falls of Snow, otherwife fine clear Weather, with 
Sunfhine ; but, on the thirteenth, there was Rain, 
with which it grew much warmer •, but, on the 
next Morning, the fourteenth, the Wind then 
changing from the South to North- Weft, it 
grew again very cold, and the Froft very Iharp. 

The Ships Boats had a free Paffage backward 
' and forward to the Fadlory, no longer than the 
fifth of O^ober. Upon the third, as it had done 
Days before, the I'lde brought a great Quantity 
of thin skim Ice into the Cretxi, Part of which it 
left on the Banks ; fo on the fourth •, and the 
fifth the Entrance of the Creek was fo full of Ice 
upon the Flood, that the Long-Boat of the Cali- 
fornia^ and the Pinnace, with great Dirficulty 
pufhed tiirough, nor could they for fome Time 
get to the Shore, the People being lirft taken out 
in the Small-Boat, very cold, and fome of their 
Jackets almoft covered with Ice, the Spray of 
the Water being froze on them. Upon the 
feventh there was a Quantity of Ice on the 
Shores of the great River, and the Channels upon 
the Flood were filled with flufh Ice. By the ninth 
the Creek was froze over from Side to Side, and 
could be walked upon, the Shoals as well as the 
Shores of the great River, as far down as the 
Factory, had now Ice upon then?, the Ice ex- 

Difiovery of a North-Weft P aft age, 155 

tending itfelf fomeway into the Channels 5 but 0<^ober. 
the Channels were yet open. 

After the thirteenth of Ooioher we neither heard 
nor faw any more Geefe during the Winter, tho* 
it is ufual for fome few of them to ftay as long as 
there are any Waters open, the Want of which is 
a fufficient Reafon for their not continuing in thefe 
Parts ; to which may be added another, which is, 
their not being fufficiently provided with Feathers 
to preferve them againft the Severity of the Sea- 
fon J for all the Birds which remain in thefe 
Parts are extraordinarily provided by Nature for 
that Purpofe, except the Raven. Amongft 
thefe Birds, none are a more remarkable Inftance 
of this than the Partridge, which, in Summer, 
are brown, much the Colour of an Englift Par- 
tridge. Thofe brown Feathers they moult as 
the Winter comes on, and have, in their Stead, 
white Feathers, excepting the larger Tail-Fea- 
thers, which are tipped with black. The white 
Feathers (excepting the Pinion Feathers, and the 
large Feathers of the Tail) are double, or lined, 
every Quill producing two or double Feathers, 
one growing within the other j the inner one lefs 
than the outer, and more foft and downy. Thus 
in Winter they have double the Number of fmall 
Feathers to what they have in Summer. They 
moult thefe white Feathers in Spring, and re^ 
affume their brown Feathers (which then are only" 
one to a Quill) againft the Summer Seafon. 

X 2 The 

15^ -^ Vo V A G E /or the 

Cftober. The Partridge is not unlike to thofe in Eng- 
land, as to the Shape of the Head, but their 
Beaks are rather more fnubbed and Ihort. Over 
their Eyes they have fmall red Combs -, in the 
Make of their Body Hke a Pidgeon, but much 
larger -, their Legs are muffled ; they feed when 
the Snow is on the Ground, on the fmall Twigs 
and 8uds of Poplar, of which you will find their 
Craws full, having Gravel amongft it. They 
run much as Englijh Partridge do, and, like them, 
flock together, but this only during the Winter 
Seafon •, and it is their Similitude to the Englijh 
Partridge, in thefe two refpeds, that gave them 
their Name. Moft of the Partridge were this 
Year intirely white by the thirteenth of O£loher ; 
there were few or none of them which had not 

•■ moulted their brown Feathers by that Time. 

As the Birds are provided for againfl the Se- 
verity of the Seafon, fo are the Beaft -, which is 
evidenced in the Skins of thofe Beafts, which are 
killed in Winter being only of Value, and what 
we call Firs ; the Skin of thofe Beafts which are 
killed in Summer being of little Value, and ne- 
ver traded for. The Rabbits are provided by 
Nature with a warmer Coat than what they have 
in Summer, having in Summer only a ftiort fhag 
Fir, of a brownilh Colour, which they do not 
fhed ; but on the Approach of Winter it fhoots 
out into a long Hair, turning white. When the 
Rabbits are intirely changed, fo as on looking 
amongft the Hair you do not fee it brown 


DifcoveryofaNorth-WeJiPaffage. , 157 
at the Root, or half Way up, they are then in O^ober. 
high Seafon for Eating. In their Skins they ap- 
pear much larger than our Englijh Rabbits, but, 
when fkinned are not fo ; they have the Refem- 
blance both of the Rabbit and Hare ; their Head 
and their Ears are like to the Rabbit j in their 
Body and Feet they moil refemble the Hare. 

Upon the Fifteenth we had a Fall of fmall 
dufty Snow, from Six to Eleven, with a fliarp 
Air -, which was the firft Snow that continued or 
laid on the Ground, and did not melt as all the 
former Snows had done. The People were now 
forced to wear Mittins ; for, if their Hands were 
bare, the Froft would immediately feize them. 
They alfo found it neceflary to wear more Cloath- 
ing. All Iron touched ftuck to the Fingers, 
Water expofed in the open Air immediately 
froze -, and Beer carried in a Cafk, between the 
Houfe and the Ship (though not Half a Mile) 
would have a Quantity of Ice amongft it. On 
the Eighteenth, at Night, was the laft Rain we 
had during the Winter. 

Between the fifteenth and thirtieth of 05fober^ 
it was much the fame, as to Cold -, fometimes 
warmer than the other, as the Wind was North- 
erly or Southerly •, the Northerly, and efpecially 
North- Wefterly Winds producing the coldeft 
Weather j frequent Falls of fmall dufty Snow ; 
,bvjt at other Times clear W^eather, 


158 ^Voyage for the 

Oftober. Several of the Seamen were about this Time 
taken ill •, fome while at Work in the Woods ; 
others aboard the Ship, upon their Return from 
Work. When they came near to the Fire they 
were feized with a Shivering, and Sicknefs at the 
Stomach, like the Attack of an Ague Fit, and 
were very faint. The Night after, they would 
be reftlefs ; on the next Day complained either 
of Pains in their Heads or Backs, but never, at 
the fame Time, of both. They were very low- 
fpirited"; on the fucceeding Night would fleep 
better than on the former •, their Pain was lefs 
on the next Day, and Spirits better, but with 
vet-y little Appetite. The third Night they 
would reft tolerably -, and on the following Day 
would be in a manner well, and free from Pain. 
On the fourth or fifth Day would be able to return 
to their Bufinefs. All the Remedies made ufe 
of, were, either bleeding the Day the Perfon was 
taken, or, on the next Day ; and fomething given 
fo Sweat ', but I could never hear that this man- 
ner of treating the Diftemper had any fenfiblq 

Novemb. Novemher the firft being cloudy, with fmall 
Snow, and a frefh Wind at N. E. the Cold in- 
creafed •, and the next Day, the Wind at N. W. 
began to be extreme, or very intenfe ; and the 
Captain, with the Officers and Seamen, being 
ftill on board the Ship, could not be warm, not 
even in the Cabbin, though a gr^at Fire was con- 

Dif cover y of a North-J'Veft Pajfage. 159 

tinually kept, and Blankets nailed over the Win- Novemb. 
dows. If any Water poured out of one Veflel 
into another, fell afide, it imnnediately froze. 
Brandy was congealed fo as to look like Oil. 
Port Wine froze folid. Liquor, one third Bran- 
dy, froze folid. Excepting what contained in a 
fmall Cavity, in the Middle, both of the Wine 
and the Bombo, what remained unfroze in fuch 
Cavities was extremely flrong. All within Side 
the Ship, the CeiHngs, and the Bolt-heads, ex- 
cepting in the Cabbin or the Galley, were thick 
covered with a white Rind. Upon Waking in 
the Morning the Blankets would have Icicles up- 
on them near to the Mouth, proceeding from 
the Freezing of the Breath. When we went 
Abroad, the Eye-lafhes, the Dropping of the 
Nofe, and the Sweat afide the Wigs, froze. In 
Cutting of the Ice v/ith an Axe, to get at the 
Water, the Bits of Ice which would fly up, or 
the Sprinkling of the Water, would immediate- 
ly freeze, and ftick to the Face or Cloaths. The 
Fingers could not be cxpofed a Trifle of Time, 
without Freezing -, and you were conftantly oblig- 
ed, every Quarter of an Hour, or oftener, to rub 
your Face, to prevent the Nofe or the Cheeks 
Freezing. So that we were now advanced to as . 
fevere Weather, with Refpedt to Cold, as the 
Winter would admit of ; and which lafted un- 
til the Tenth, but then grew more moderate. 
The Commanders, and the People, were by that 
Time removed from the Ships to the Houfe, and 
the Tents. 


i6o A Y OY AG-E for the 

Novcmb, It held moderate until the Twentieth, and,, as 
was ulual in the more moderate Weather, dole ^ 
but lefs Snow fell now than before ; and from 
the Twentieth to the Thirtieth, which was moft- 
ly fharp Weather, clear, with Sun-lhine,, there 
were but two Falls of Snow for thofe ten Days, 
and little Wind during the whole Month. 

For feveral Days, at the latter End of the 
Month, a Rhime fell like fmall Needles of Snow,, 
which would fhew themfelves gliftering in the 
Sun ; never ftuck to the Cloaths to wet them, 
and were not to be feen of a cloudy Day. The 
Change, from intenfe to more moderate Wea- 
ther, is ufually the Effeft of the Winds. The 
Southern Winds abate the intenfe Cold \ but at 
the fame Time change the ferene Sky (the ufual 
Confequence of North and North- Weft Winds) 
to clofe and cloudy, with an Alteration, with 
refped to the Froft, fo as to make it more or 
lefs ; but not fo far as to caufe the leaft Thaw. 
The Earth is every-where dry and hard ; the 
Waters covered with Ice, the Snow fleety as 
Duft, hangs in Clods on theTrees ; and alfo co- 
vers both Earth and Ice. 

Between the thirteenth and nineteenth of O^o- 
her a great Quantity of Water came into the Ri- 
ver •, and the Ice in the Creek, the Nineteenth, 
was very much broke up. A Boat came from 
the Fa6tory ; and Capt. Moor fent his Jolliboat, 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl Pajfage, 1-6 1 

though with fome Hazard, down to the Faftory •, Novemb. 
which returned upon the Twentieth. Upon the 
Twenty-ninth the River was luppofed to be paf- 
fable, being fixed Ice from Side to Side, even 
below the Faftory •, but on Trials made in the 
Channel, the Ice was yet tender. On the fifth 
of November was paiTed over •, but at the fame 
Time was open a Mile and a Half below the 
Factory, the "VV idth of the Channel, with Ice on 
the Shores and the Flats ; but on the fourth of 
December it was fall from Side to Side, as low 
as the North Point of the Ifland, from the Shore 
of the Main to the Shore of the Ifland. It was 
froze but a League farther into the Bay all Win- 
ter, between the Shoals that are to Northward 
of the IQand, and the Eaft Shore. And this 
Difference of the Time, as to the Freezing over, 
above, and below the Fadlory, and more towards 
the Sea, is not to be attributed to the Weather 
being feverer at the Time it is froze over, than 
it was before, when the Parts above the Fadlory 
were froze ; and it is attibutable to no other Caufe 
than to the Rapidity of the Tides being much 
greater below the Factory, and towards the Bay, 
than what they are above the Faftory. The iirfl: 
Ice which is generated, is generated up the River 
where the Tides are lefs. When the Tides are 
on the Rife they lift the Ice -, fo the Ice, being 
loofened, comes down with the Ebb. The next 
Flood takes it back again ; but not fo far as to 
the Place where it was broken from ; and there 
calls it on the Shores of the River and the Creeks, 

Y and 

ib2 -^Voyage for the 

Novemh. and on the Shoals where it incorporates. By 
thefe Means the firft Ice comes into the lower 
Part of the River, laying the Foundation for the 
River, being froze over. 

The intenfe cold Weather did not come on 
this Year fooner than common. The Beginning 
oi November is ufually the Time that the Factory 
People have their Winter-Cloathing delivered 
them •, which confift of Coats of Beaver-fkins 
fewed together, fhaped much like a Great-Coat, 
but no Seams at the Sides or Back. Thefe Coats 
they gather up round with a Belt, and with 
Thongs tie them clofe over the Breaflr. They 
have large Mittins of Beaver-fldns, that hang be- 
fore them by a String, which goes round their 
Shoulders, that they may have their Hands at 
Liberty, to take in or out, as any Occafion may 
require j 'oiz. To charge and fire their Guns, or 
fet their Traps. They have Caps, the Crown 
of which is of Cloth, the Flaps of which reach 
down to the Shoulders, and button clofe under 
the Chin, are of Bever-fkin j and thofe who do 
not ufe Caps, have Martin or Cat-fl<in Wigs. 
Some, in mod excefiive Weather, will wear 
Pieces of Beaver-fl<in over the Face, as high as 
to the Eyes, On their Legs and Feet, have 
three Pair of Woollen Socks j one juil comes to 
the Inftep, the other to the Ancle, and the third, 
two Flaps of the Sock, almoft all the Way up 
the Leg. Over thefe Socks they wear a Shoe 
made of Moufe or Deer-fkin, of the Indians 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl PaJJage. 163 

clreffing, foft and pliable, much like to Walli- Novemb. 
Leather (for if the Feet are any Way confined 
they immediately freeze) \ thefe Shoes are with- 
out Heels. They have a Stocking of Woollen 
Cloth, which reaches to their Shoe ; and, by 
Strings on each Side, they tie the Stocking to the 
Shoe, fo as nothing can get in between. The 
Stocking is made like a Spatterdafli, only hangs 
loofe about the Ancles, not fitting clofe as a 
Spatterdaih does •, for, being loofe, the Snow 
fhakes off the eafier •, and if clofe, the Snow ly- 
ing there muft freeze the Leg. The Stockings 
are not buttoned as a Spatterdaih, but fewed up 
on the Side •, and beyond the Seam there is left 
a Flap all the Way down, which protefts the 
Seam from the Snow. The Stockings reach up 
to the Crutch •, but are gartered under the Knee, 
generally with Garters which are made by the 
Indians^ of Porcupine Qiiills, coloured, and hav- 
ing Strips of Leather at the End. Every Fadory 
Man hath his Gun ; a Pouch on one Side, a 
Powder-horn on the other. To their Belt, with 
which they tie up their Coats, they have a Bag 
hanging behind them, which they call a Skipper 
Toakifi, containing a wooden Tinder-Box, a Flint, 
and a Steel. This Bag is fometimes made of . 
Cloth, at other Times of Leather, fome orna- 
mented, by the Indians, with Brafs-work (the 
Brafs, the Remains of their old Kettles) and 
others with Beads. It is ufual alfo to carry a 
fmall Hatchet at their Belt, that in cafe of lof- 
ing their Way they can cut down Wood, and 

y 2 buiki 

164 ./f V o Y A G E for the 

Novemb. build a Barricado, or a thick Hedge of Pine, to 
cover them from the Wind •, and with a good 
Fire before them, as there is no Thaw or Moi- 
ftiire, there is not any thing to be feared as to 
Catching of Cold, nor as to Freezing, from the 
intenfe Cold that the Fire proteds them from. 
By thefe Means can flay allNight without Harm, 
and comfortably, if they have any Game in their 
Bag, which hangs upon their Shoulders by a Strap 
of Leather, that comes before them a-crofs 
their Breafts, and is ufually called their Partridge 
Bag. Befides, if any Perfon finds any Part of 
him freezing, it is cuftomary, immediately, if 
not near a Tent, to make a Fire, and fet him- 
felf down, with that Part which is fo freezing 
from the Fire, and ufe ftrong Fridion. So you 
do in cafe you find your Cheeks, Nofe, or any 
Part of your Face, tingling, you immediately 
turn with your Backs to the Wind, rub the Part 
{loutly, and the Freezing may be prevented. 
The Hatchets are alfo ufeful to them for Repair- 
ing their Traps, and on feveral Occafions. 

From the Ufe of fo warm a Drefs, it may be 
eafily imagined, that the Weather is very fevere, 
yet it is not fo fevere that there is no Subfiftino- 
without fuch a Drefs •, fome of the Fadory Ser- 
vants themfelves only wear Coats made of Lea- 
ther, or Moufe-Skin, dreffed by the Indians^ 
which are loofe and long, fomething like a Ba- 
nyan. Blankets, and even a good great Coat, will 
do as to the Body ; the principal Care required 


Difcovery of a North-Weft PaJJage. 165 

being as to the extreme Parts, as to the Feet and Novemb. 
Legs, Arms and Hands, thele muft be fecured, 
as alio the Head, and thefe Parts the Indians 
take principal Care of, both as to themfelves and 
their Children. 

This Method of providing by the Fadoi'y 
People was a Pattern for the Ship's People to do 
the fame ; fome of the Officers had provided 
themfelves with Beaver Coats, which are called 
Tockies. Before they fet out^ from the Orknyes 
the Governor of i'ork Fort, fent each Ship a 
Number of Tockies for the Winter, both for 
the Ufe of the common Men, as well as of 
the Officers of both Ships, who were not fupplied ; 
and prefened all the Officers with Beaver-Skin 
Mittens, and Skins for Caps ; he alfo fupplied 
both Ship's Companies with Leather for Shoes. 
They were fupplied with Socks and Stockings 
out of the Ship's Stores. 

Many of the Men by a former Acquaintance, 
or one newly contracted, with the Servants of 
the Faftory, got Beaver Mittens and Caps ; 
others Leather Mittens which they lined with 
Woollen •, or made them Woollen Mittens, wear- 
ing alfo on their Hands two pair of knit Mittens. 
They provided themfelves fo well, that no ma- 
terial Accident as to Freezing happened to any 
one ; the mofl Material was a Finger of one of 
the Seamen was froze, and the Heel of another, 
both which were cured ; but as to the others, 


i66 A Voyage for the 

Novemb. they only got the Tip of their Fingers bliftered, 
or their Cheeks, or their Nofe, which prefently 
difappeared, leaving the Part very tender. 

What was the greateft Inconvenience, was the 
Want of Snow-Shoes, which they had but a few 
Pair of, and without which it was almoft im- 
poffible for them to go out and kill Game upon 
the Creeks which were level, and where the 
Snow fell dired ; the Snow was at no Time 
above a Foot thick, but on the Plains where 
there is high Grafs, and 3ruih, the Snow lying 
light and hollow, upon every Step taken, you 
fink to the Knees. Upon the Sides of Banks and 
in Places where the Snow is drifted by the Wind, 
the Snow fhall be fix or eight, in fome Places, 
fourteen Feet in Depth; and to the Windward 
it Ihall be fo hard, that a Perfon may walk up it 
without making any ImpreiTion, and as foon as 
he is at the Top, it will give Way and let him 
in, finding fome Difficulty to extricate himfelf 

The Form of the Snow-Shoes is fomewhat 
Elliptical, not being a perfed: Ellipfis •, the one 
End round, and the other terminating in a Point. 
There are fome of thefe Shoes fix Feet long, or 
longer -, the ufual Size of thofe ufed in the Parts 
where we were, and of thofe the People had, was 
about four Feet long, in the broad eft Part about 
feventeen Inches -, the Outfide is of the Juniper 
Tree, about the Thicknefa of an Inch, and half 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Paff'age. 167 

an Inch in Breadth, much refembling the Infide of Novemb. 
a Racket, and pierced through hke that for paf- 
fing the Gut through to make the Netting. The 
Netting that is in the Snow-Shoes, which is 
worked in the fame manner as it is in the Racket 
(only the Mafhes larger) is of Deers Sinews dried. 
To keep the Piece, of Juniper which furrounds 
the Shoe more firm, and the Sides together, there 
are two Bars put a-crofs, v^hich are moftly of 
Juniper, and which Bars divide the Shoes into 
three Copartments, that in the Middle is the 
largeft and longeft. There is a thick Piece of 
a dried Gut of a Deer, which runs a-crofs the 
Shoe, about four Inches from the Bar, which 
is next the round End, or fore Part of the Shoe, 
and is made faft to fuch Bar by a Piece of dried 
Gut, which paiTes behind the Bar •, and, behind 
that, a kind of Lacing, not Net- work, as is in the 
reft of the Shoe. This Lacing keeps the crofs Slip 
of dried Deer Gut at the Itated Diftance from 
the Bar, and from this Slip to the other Bar, or 
that which is neareft to the narrow End, there 
is Net-work, but the Mafhes are larger ; and the 
Sinew the Netting is of, is thicker than what the 
Mafhes and Sinew are in the other two Copart- 
ments. The Lacing which is between the Slip of 
dried Dear's Gut that goes a-crofs, and the fore- 
moft Bar, is only from each Side towards the 
Middle, about a Third, leaving an Opening in 
the Middle ; and in this Part the Slip of dried 
Deers Gut is arched or circular, confined to that 
SJiape by the Netting behind it, and which ex- 

i68 A Voyage for the 

Novemb. tends to the hinder Bar, this Opening is for the 
fore Part of the Foot, fo as the Toes do not 
touch the oppofite Bar, as it would bruife them, 
the . other Part of the Foot is on the Netting, 
faftened by two Strings or Straps of drefied Deer 
Skin which pafs over the Toes, round the Foot 
and the Heel, tied in a Manner as to be eafily 
ftiaken off, without ufing the Flands, the Shoe 
hangs principally by the Toes, and the fore Part 
of the Foot, and when the Foot is lifted up in 
walking, the Shoe hangs Harizontal, and from 
the Heel, which meets the Shoe again as the Foot 
is put down, in walking you fhoot your Foot 
forward, lifting one Shoe fo high as you may no': 
ftrike the other, It caufes a very aukwajd Gate» 
but is prefently acquired. Thefe Shoes, as well 
as the Manner of Cloathing in Winter, is after the 
Example of the Indians^ and the Shoes are made 
by the Indians for the People at the Fad;ory. 
There is no paffing the Snow without fuch Shoes, 
for any length of V/ay, and where the Snow is 
not deep, as of about twelve or fourteen Inches 
you will not fmk with them above half an Inch, 
but in the Woods and Plains, or fuch Places in 
which the Snow is deeper you will fmk two or 
three Inches. 

As there could be but few Snow- Shoes got, 
for the People, thcfe they could procure were 
afTigned to thofe of every Tent that hunted, the 
People of every Tent having their feveral Pro- 
vince, there being feven Perfons in a Tent (in- 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage, 169 

eluding the Pactroon, or he who commands, and Novemb. 
alfo a Bo J) two of the People were kept to Hunt- 
ing, which Term they give to going a Shooting of 
Partridge i they alfo fet upRabbits Snares. Two 
others were employed to cut and bring home 
Wood, and there faw it, fawing as much every 
Day as would laft for Firing twenty-four Hours, 
and having always as much cut down as would * 
ferve for a Fortnight's Firing, that in excefiive 
Weather they might only have it to faw. The 
Saws and Hatchets were brought with us from 



Another Part of the Bufinefs of one of them, 
befides Cutting and Sawing of Wood, was to go 
and fee what Rabbits were in the Snares, and 
new fet them ; and of the other was to go 
on Meflages to the Houfe, and fetch up Pro- 
vifions on the proper Days, and keep Ice cut 
ready for fetching. The Place of the fifth Pq:- 
fon was to Cook •, he got the Break faft by Day- 
light for the Hunters, then for the others •, after- 
wards fwept his Tent, cleaned the Things up, 
made the Cakes and baked them, Flower being 
allokved inftead of Bifcuit, the Bifcuit being pre- 
ferved until the going to Sea. Drefled the Din- 
ner, the Time for which was Sun-fet, and, if any 
Game was brought Home, it was his Place to 
pick it : Twice in the Week he and the Boy 
brewed Spruce Beer, though they had no true 
Spruce nearer than twenty Miles, but they made 
Z ufe 

5 TO ^ VoYAG "E. for the 

: -ovemb. ufe of the Tops of fmall Pine Trees. * This Beer 
was much preferable to the Water of th.fvvecl Ice, 
and it prevented the People's being Coftive, 
which was a general Complaint of every Body 
during the Winter, and for this Reafon the Fac- 
tory Servants, when they go to refide Abroad at 
a Tent, take MolofTes with them to mix with 
their Water : The further Bufinefs of the Boy, 
befides affifting in Brewing, is to light and keep 
up the Fire, bring in the Billets, fetch Ice, 
make the Beds, and affift in any other Way he 

Juft after Sun-fet was the ufual Time that the 
Hunters repaired Home, efpecially if fuccefslefs, 
by which Time as many Billets were got into the 
Tent as would be ncceffary for the Night and 
Morning Fire •, the Tent Door was made up. 
Dinner got, afterwards a good Fire which made 
the Tent impenetrable to all Cold -, and, as every 
Man was allowed half a Pint of Brandy a Day 

a To brew this Beer, the Kettle being near full of Water, 
rram the Kettle with fmall Pine ; from one Experiment you 
will judge the Qiiantity of Pine that will bear a Proportion 
to your Water, iet the Tops of the Pme be boiled in the 
Water until the Pine turns yellow, and tlieBaik peels, or the 
Sprigs llrip off readily on being pulled ; then take ofF your 
Kettle, and ihe Pine out of the Water, and lo about two 
Gallons of Liquor put a quarter of a Pint of Molofles ; hang 
your Kettle en. giving the Liquor another Boil until a Scum 
arifes ; then take the Liquor off, put it into a Cask in which 
you have before rut cold Water, the Quantity of about two 
Gallons if it is a twelve Gallon Cask ; when your Cask is 
fall, then take a Gun with a fmall Quantity of Powder, and 
no Wad ; fire into the Bunghole, it will fet the Liquor a 
working; in about twent^-faur Hours flop the Cask down, 
and the Liquor will be ready to drink. 


DIfcovery of a Nortb-Weji PaJJage, 17 i 

with proportionable Sugar, they made Spruce ^^ovemb. 
Beer, Flip, moil generally, with which they 
fmoaked their Pipes, and about eight o'Clock to 
Bed ; when in Bed they could not be more lenfible 
of the Cold, than when up, having a Quantity 
of Cloaths to cover them \ but notwithftanding 
there would be Ice on the Blankets in the Morn- 
ing, from the Freezing of their Breath, and 
Icicles near a Foot long, hanging down from be- 
tween the Logs at the Ends of the Tent, the 
fartheft from the Fire ; if there were any Water 
left in the Kettles, or if a Kettle was full of 
Water, it would be froze all folid before the 
Morning, but it had not that Effeft on the 
Spruce Beer, which being placed near the Fire, 
there could "be no Fear as to its Freezing all Day, 
and at Night, when the Fire was out, it would 
freeze but very little. 

The Tents had each of them three Brafs Ket- 
tles, two larger, one fmaller •, a Calk for their 
Beer j Bowls, Cans, and Spoons •, a double Saw i 
a fingleSaw, alfo fmall Hatchets; a large Wood 
Axe ; and three or four Fowling-Pieces. Once 
every Week they fetched their Provifion from 
the Houfe where the Captains refided •, but were 
only allowed five Days Dinners ; three of which 
were fait Meat, two Filh •, the other two Days 
the People muft provide for themfelves. This 
was intended to make the People exercife them- 
felves in Hunting, to provide themfelves for 
thofe two Days ; and that it would alfo be two 
Z 2 Days 

17^ A Vo Y A G E for the 

Novcmb. Days in a Week for frefh Provifion j and was % 
Saving of the other Provifion, 

The Perfon who went to the Houfe for the 
Provifion, drew it on a Sled ; of which every 
Tent had one or two, Thefe Sleds were made of 
Barrel-Staves, ftraightened, and paired, fo as to 
be very thin. The Sleds were about thirteen or 
fourteen Feet long, and a Foot and Half broad. 
Every Length of thefe Staves were knit to ano- 
ther Length by a Piece of Wood, which went a- 
crofs the Ends of the two Lengths ; and which 
Piece of Wood was fafbened both to one and the 
other, by Pegs drove through it, in two feparate 
Rows •, fo that in the Drawing of the Sled, as 
the Ends of the Lengths of the Staves are not 
faftened to each other, but it is this SHp of Wood, 
which holds them together, thefe Lengths play 
and twine over rough Ice, or any Unevennefs on 
the Surface, as though they were Joints. From 
one End of the Sled to the other (excepting the 
Front, where the Sled turns up) they were two 
Strips of Wood nailed to the Sled, near the Edge, 
on both Sides. In thefe Strips there were Holes 
made, to pafs a fmall Rope through, and fo faften 
Provifion, or whatever elfe is put on the Sled. 
The Front of the Sled turns up more than a 
Foot *, and there are two Pieces of Rope, one 
on each Side, to keep it in that Pofition. The 
Head of the Sled being thus turned up, it dif- 
perfes and turns away the Snow ; for if it was flat 
or low the Snow would obftrud the Sled, and 


Difcovery of a North4VeJl Paffage, 173 

make it bury itfelf. The Sled is drawn by a Novemb. 
fmall Cord, the two Ends of which are faften'd 
to the two Pieces or Strips of Wood that pafs on 
both Sides the Length of the Sled -, and the Per- 
fon who draws the Sled, pafTing the Rope over 
his Shoulder, and under the oppofite Arm, will 
draw the Sled over the Snow, and well loaded, 
with great Eafe. At the Faftories they have 
large Dogs, which they make ufe of to draw 
their Sleds, having fuitable Harnefs ♦, and all 
the Carriage which is performed in thefe Parts, 
is either by Men or Dogs •, they having no 
Horfes, or other Animals, which they can em- 
ploy for this Purpofe. 

What thofe who go out a Hunting principally 
kill, in the Winter, are Partridge and Rabbits. 
The Partridge they Ihoot ; but the other they 
moftly take by the Snare. The Partridge, as 
foon as the Winter fets in, begin to go in Flocks, 
fometimes two hundred in a Flock, which the 
Hunter endeavours to get out upon the Plains or 
the Ice ', and he there keeps them conftantly on 
the Scare, by firing fmall Charges of Powder at 
them, they rifing and fettling again juft before 
him, and fo keeps following them unril they are 
tired, and he hath made them as tame as Chickens ; 
then he kills almoft as he pleafes. Some of the 
Faflory Servants and Indians ufe a Whiftle, in 
which they imitate the Hawk ; and when they 
fee the Partridge are likely to take a far Flight, 


174 ^Voyage for the 

Novcmb. will, by their Whiftling, caufe the Partridge to 

The Partridge were in pretty great Plenty 
until the firft Week of Decemher ; and then that 
Plenty ceafed ; occafioned as well by there not 
being lb much Snow upon the Hills, as in the 
low Lands where we were ; and they could there 
get to feed on the Cranberries and Dewatterber- 
ries, which laft all the Winter. They alfo were 
drove from the Parts where we were, by the 
Number of People that were incelTantly after 
them, and would not give them Time to flock. 
In fevere Weather they yield no Sport, keeping 
in the Woods. The beft Time, in good Wea- 
ther, is in the Mornings and Evenings ; then 
they are out of the Woods, amongft the Pop- 
lar upon the Bank-fides of Rivers or Creeks, or 
on the Iflands. 

There are Pheafants, though but few, much 
like to our Englijlo Pheafants, which abide during 
the Winter, and are double feathered. There 
is alfo, befides thefe, white Partridge, another 
Kind, which they call a Wood Partridge, much 
like to an Englijh Partridge in Shape, but difi^er- 
ing in Colour, which much refembles that of a 
Guinea Hen •, or is a mottled White and Grey ; 
and though thefe Partridge (hift their Feathers in 
the fame Manner as the white Partridge do, hav- 
ing alfo double Feathers ; yet there is no Altera- 

Difco'very of a North-JVeJi Pajfage, lyg 

tlon as to the Colour, as is mentioned of the white Novcmb. 
Partridge ; nor is there of the Pheafant, or of 
the Hawks, or Kites •, all which have a Change 
of Feathers, but no Alteration as to Colour -, and 
the Hawks and Kites, of which there are various 
Sorts (as well as the Pheafants) feem to be of the 
fame Species, in all other Refpefts, with thofe 
Kind of Birds which we have in England. The 
Wood Partridge hath a red Comb over his Eyes ; 
is often killed as he fits Deeping on the Ground ; 
and at other Times there is more Danger of your 
coming too near him than of the Bird's getting 
away ; for often, when a Hunter lights upon one 
of thefe Partridges, he is forced to ftep fome 
Yards back, for fear his Shot fhould tear the Bird 
to Pieces. 

The Rabbits do not burrow as in England^ 
but get afide Stumps or fallen Trees ; and in 
Winter fcratch Holes in the Snow. The Hun- 
ter obferves their Tracks in the Snow, which they 
make as they go out a Nights to feed ; fells fmall 
Trees with the Branches on, and lays a Tree on 
each Side the Tra6t, leaving juft the Width of 
the Trad open ; and the Trees ftretching eight 
or ten Feet to the Right or Left, the Rabbit is 
confined, in a manner, to his Trad. The Hun- 
ter fets up two Sticks a-crofs, about five Feet in 
Height, which are to carry a Pole, one End of 
which is elevated, and the other made faft to a 
Brafs Snare, placed in the Opening between the 
Trees, and confijied down in fuch a Manner by 


jyt ^Voyage for the 

Novemb. three Sticks, and tied with fo flight a Knot, that 
as foon as the Rabbit is taken, the Snare flips, 
and up goes the Pole •, and, by being thus hung 
in the Air, the Rabbit is preferved from the 
Wolves, Foxes, Cats, and leffer Vermin, pre- 
fently freezes to Death, and moft commonly 
mud: be brought to the Fire before the Snare can 
be got off. Where there is a great Run of Rab- 
bits, there fhall be a Hedge of forty Trees in 
Length, leaving Openings where the Tradts are, 
and fetting up Poles. In light Nights httle Suc- 
cefs is to be expected. After Snows the Snares 
are generally all to be moved, as the Rabbits will 
then have new Trads ; and fometimes the Foxes, 
by frequenting the Hedges, will drive them from 
their Haunts. It is eafier Trapping them when 
they haunt amongft the Poplar and Brufh, on 
the River or Creek Sides. Find out where the 
Brufh is thick on each Side their Trad •, and this 
you thicken by flicking Sticks in amongfl it ; 
then you take and bend down a Piece of the 
Poplar or Alder to your Snare, which anfwers 
the Purpofe of your TofTing-Pole -, but fetting 
or redtifying of Snares is very unpleafant Work, 
as you are obliged to hold your Hands fo near the 
Snow, which will oblige you every two or three 
Minutes, from the Intenfenefs of the Cold, to 
put your Hands in your Mittins for Warmth. 

What was killed, either of Partridge or Rab- 
bits, bore no Proportion to the hundred Dozen 
which Mr. Hudfon'^ People killed, of Partridge j 


Bifcovery of a North-Wejl P of age. 177 

nor of the eighteen hundred Dozen killed by Sir Novemb. 
Thomas ButtoTt's People ; nor had the People 
ufed all the Induftry polTible, would any thing 
like either of thofe Numbers, of both Rabbit 
and Partridge, nor of Partridge only, been kil- 

The People only faw three Deer all the Win- 
ter, none of which they killed. One of Capt. 
Moor's Ship's Company killed a Porcupine, 
fhooting him in the Tree j but it is the Cuftorn 
of the Indians, if there is a Porcupine upon the 
Tree, to cut it down j and when the Porcupine 
falls with the Tree, they kill him, by ftriking 
him over the Nofe. The Make of the Body 
much refembles that of a Pig •, hath fmall Eyes 
and Mouth, Feet like a Land Tortoife, with large 
Claws, is covered with a long briftly Hair, and a 
fhorter Hair under that •, and under this fhorter 
Hair his Quills lie concealed very thick ; they 
are white, with a brown Point, the longeft not 
exceeding four Inches in Length, and which, on 
ftroaking your.Hand upon the Hair, immediately^ 
ftick to the Hand ; and as you take away your 
Hand, they come alio flicking to it. When the 
Porcupine finds he cannot get from you, he will 
fidle towards you, to touch you with his Quills ; 
which are of fo penetrating a Quality, the In- 
dians ftick them in their Nofe and Ears, for to 
eat Holes, for the placing their Nofe and Ear- 

A a Two 

178 A Voyage for the 

Novemb. Xwo People fet out from ChurchillY i^oxy , and 
at Night built a Barricade to lie under. , Next 
Night returned to the fame Barricade, and there 
found a Wolf lying dead. Looking upon him 
could perceive no Marks, in his Skin, of his be- 
ing fhot, or any ways wounded ; but opening 
the Wolf's Mouth found it full of Porcupine 

The Porcupine moves very (lowly, as he turns 
the Snow up with his Snout all the Way it goes, 
which makes his Track very plain ; and when his 
Track is once fell in with, the Porcupine is foon 
overtaken. The Porcupine gets up into a Pine or 
Juniper-Tree, and there Hays until he hath bark- 
ed it both Body and Branches-. The Juniper is 
the moft favourite, and what he feeds on is the 
Rind between the Bark and the Wood. This 
Animal is very good Eating. 

The moft of the Provifion our People pro- 
cured, in the Winter, was the Effe6t of their own 
Induftry. By our not going to Port Nelfon we 
were deprived of the Afiiftance of the Indians, 
which was one of the principalMotives urged in the 
Council for our Wintering there. Thofe Indians 
who v/ere mentioned to come Aboard us, when 
the Ship lay in five Fathom Hole, and were to 
hunt for us in W^ inter, were of thofe they call 
Home Indians^ always in Parts near the Factory, 
not going far up into the Country, and are in- 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. 179 

tirely at the Governor's Diredion. The Story Novemo. 
which they had rdated with refped to Albany^ 
their being dilcharged, and going Southward, 
was all meer Invention. If they were not Spies 
employed by the Governor, they anfwered the 
Purpofe ; for it is highly probable, that it was 
upon what they faid, or what the Governor learn- 
ed from them, that the Governor difpatched a 
Parcel of Indians^ then at the Goofe-Tent, which 
is a fmall wooden Houfe built near the extreme 
Point o^ Hays's Ifland, or Point of Marlh, and 
who had come down to kill Geek, up into the 
Country •, laying a flrift Injunction on others 
not to come nigh us (there being many, at that 
Time, fhooting Geefe for the iFa6tory) and hur- 
ried them away as foon as the Seafon was over. 
This InjunClion was not fo ftridlly oblerved, but 
fome came Aboard us, both before we were in th(^ 
Creek, as well as after. But what we got of 
Provifion from them was very trifling -, fome 
few Fifh, a fmall Quantity of Venifon, fonne few 
Ducks and Geefe. As foon as the Houfe was in- 
habited, fome of the Factory Servants came, and 
eredled a Tent near it ; their Bufinefs being to 
fetch down fome Wood, which had been felled, 
and favved into Plank, about fix Miles off; but 
another Purpofe was, to prevent our having ?.ny 
Intercourfe with the Indians \ and a Tent v/ith 
two of the Factory People was kept (to watch 
that the Indians fhould not come to the Houfe) 
all the Winter, and while the Ships continued 
^il the Creek i the Mm/zj knowing that there 
A a 2 was 

i8o ^Voyage for the 

Novemb. was a Perfon who would give an Account to the 
Governor of their Comino:, it difcourag-ed them 
from coming •, and very little frefh Provifion, 
for that Reafon, was got from them. 

I fhould have excepted (when I faid that the 
Indians were fent away) fome few that were de- 
tained, to drefs the Skins for the People's Toc- 
kies. And Capt. Smith propofed to Capt. Moor 
their fpeaking to the Governor, that fome of 
thefe Indians might be afterwards employed in 
kilhng of Partridge for both Ship's Companies. 
This was approved of by the Governor -, and he 
continued three Indians to hunt for the Ships for 
a Month j but as they were neither extraordi- 
nary Sportfmen, or remarkably induftrious, they 
killed no great Quantity of Birds. At the End 
of that Time two of them went with a Packet to 
Churchill Fadory -, fo then the Hunting ceafed ; 
and on their Return there was little Game. What 
thefe few Weeks Hunting produced was all the 
Supply of frefh Provifion which we had by Means 
of the Governor, excepting fome Venifon in the 
Spring i which will be fpoke of. 

There are Indians who are at all Times near 
the Faftories, for which they kill Provifion, and 
go a Hunting, juft as the Governor gives them 
Dire6lion. There arc others who come at the 
Time the Geefe are going Northward, in order 
to {hoot Geefe for the Fadories, continue there in 
the Summer, fifliing *, kill Geefe again, when 


Jbifcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. iSi 

going to the South •, and, the Seafon being over, Novemb. 
return up the Country. There are others who 
only come down to Trade, and that feveral Times 
in the Year •, others who come in large Bodies 
together, to Trade •, and that but once in a Year. 
They are all wandering People, live by the Chace, 
and in Tents •, incamping as Convenience or Ne- 
cefTity requires. 

• The firft Time the Indians^ who frequent the 
Southern Shore of Hudf ait's. Bay, faw any Euro- 
peafjS; was as early as the Difcovery of the Bay 
itfelf, by Mr. Hud/on. * " For when the Ice be* 

*' gan to break up, there came a Savage to the 

*' Ship, as it were to fee and be feen •, being the 

*' firft they had feen in all the Time ; and who 

*' was well intreated by Mr. Hudfon, under a 

*' Senfe of making fome Advantage by it ; pre- 

" fented the Savage with a Knife, Looking-glafs, 

*' and Buttons •, who received them thankfullyr 

*' and made Signs that after he had flept he 

*' would come again. Which he did ; drawing 

" a Sled after him, and upon it two Deer, and 

*' two Beaver Skins. He had a Scrip under 

" his Arm, out of which he took the Things the 

'^ Mafter had given him •, laid the Knife on one . 

" of the Beaver Skins, and his Glafs and But- 

*' tons upon the other •, and fo gave them to 

" Mr. Hud/on, who received them ; and the 

'* Savage took thofe Things which Mr. Hudfon 

* PurchafitPilgrimif B. III. p. 6o2. 

" had 

A Voyage for the 

" had given him, and put them again in his 
*' Scrip. Then the Mafter fhewed him, fol* 
*' which he would have given him one of his 
'* Deer Skins ; but the Mafter would have both \ 
" which he had, but not willingly. After many 
" Signs, as they underftood of it, of People to 
•* the North, and to the South, and Promife, 
" after fo many Sleeps, he would come again, 
*' he went his Way •, but never came more •, nor 
** could they afterwards meet with any People,' 
*' though they were fenfible that they were fre- 
** quently near them, as they would fet the Woods 
*' a Fire in their Sight." Neither Sir 'Thomas 
Button^ nor Capt. James^ faw any of them -, they 
were not feen from the Time of Hudfon to the 
Year 1667 -, then there was an Expedition for 
Trading with them -, which fucceeded fo well as 
to be a Foundation of the Hudfon' s> Bay Compa- 
ny's Patent," which was granted them in the 
Year 1670. 

The Indians who inhabit the South- Weft Part 
of Hudfon' s Bay, and who are properly the Krick 
Indians^ or Kilijlinons^ are much like the other 
Americans who inhabit the Northern Part o'l Ame- 
rica, as to the Make of their Perfons •, they are 
ftately, tall, well made People, in good Propor- 
tion, and of a vigorous Conftitution, fprightly 
ftrong, and adive ; no way inferior to the Euro- 
peans in the Make of their Perfons, but have ra- 
ther the Preference on their Side. They are Peo- 
ple of a good Underftanding, of a lively Imagi- 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Paff'age. 183 

nation, eafy Conception, and good Memory ; Novemb. 
are not without the Senle of a Deity •, condemn 
Vice i are kind, affable, and humane to each 
other J pay a great Refped to the Aged amongft 
them, and a Deference to each other 5 condudt 
their (Affairs with as much good Senfe as the 
People of politer Nations do theirs. This Cha- 
rad:er is not juft with refped: to thofe Indians 
which are called the Home Indians ; who, as 
mentioned, conftantly frequent the Fa(5tories, and 
are always employed in Hunting for the Facto- 
ries •, but thofe who come occafionally down, and 
refide at other Times up the Country. Thefe 
Home Indians being become moftly a debauch' d 
corrupted People, fliupid, idle, drunken, and 
guilty of all manner of Vice. 

The Indians are born white 5 but their going 
almoft naked when Children, the Greafing them, 
the Summer's Sun, their being fo much expofed 
to the Air, and the Smoak of their Tents, all 
contribute to give them that brown Gypfy Co- 
lour which they have. The Greafing themfelves, 
which is cuflomary with them all, is either with 
a Piece of Deer's Marrow (which they dry up 
much after the Manner of Hogs Lard) or Bears 
Greafe, Beaver Oil, or Goofe Greafe, which 
they rub in the Palms of their Hands, then over 
their Face, and at Times over their whole Bodies; 
and they will before a frefh Anointing of their 
Bodies, fit in the Tents with their Backs to the 
Fire, and with a Stick like a Lath, bvc the Edges. 


1S4 -^ Voyage for the 

Novcmb. turned, fcrape theGreafe off them; thisGrearing 
in Summer is a Defence in fomeMeafure asjainft 
the Musketoes, and is ufed at other Times for no 
other Reafon as I could learn, but that it keeps 
their Joints pliant and fupple ; but on the other 
hand it makes them {linking and nafty •, they 
having not found out the Way, as they refine 
upon nothing, to corred the Ranknefs of their 
Oils orGreafe, by EfTences and Perfumes, which 
more polite Nations have a long Time fubfti- 
tuted in the room of them. 

The Habitations of the Indians (which we call 
Cabbins or Tents) are fufficiently wretched •, they 
are round \ probably, as that is the moft capa- 
cious Figure, and the eafieft erefted, with the 
Materials they make Ufe of ; which are a Num- 
ber of fmall Poles, that are fet to lean one againft 
the other, fo as they meet a Top, and extended 
below ; thefe are covered with drefled Deer Skins 
fewed together ; but the Deer Skins do not go 
quite to the Top, fo as to cover the upper Part, 
or to where the Poles meet \ which Part is left 
open to vent the Smoak, and let in the Light. 
Their Fire is in the Middle. The Bottom of 
theTentis flrewed withTops of Pine-Trees. They 
lay with their Feet to the Fire, and with their 
Heads to the Tent-Sides -, and in the Tent they 
muft either fit or lie down, for there is not Room 
for them to walk ; nor do they ever walk about, 
as is the Manner with us. They are at all Times 
cither lying downjOr fitting, unlefs they are a 


Difco'very of a North'WeJi Faffage, 185 

Hunting. They are as much furprized to fee Novemb. 
the Europeans walk backward and forward in the 
fame Place, as the People of Spain were of whom 
Straho fpeaks, to fee fome Centurions of the Ro- 
man Army watch after that manner ; they thought 
they were out of their Wits, and offered to lead 
them to their Tents ; for they thought that they 
mud either keep quietly in their Tents, or that 
they muft have a Mind to do themfelves a Mif- 

You enter the Tents by turning a Piece of the 
Skin, to which there is a Stick fattened on the 
Infide it, to make it flap and clofe •, they have no 
Bolts or Locks : The Tent Door is never made 
faft but when they are all out ; and then it is by 
laying Logs of Wood againft it, feemingly to 
keep out the Dogs more than for any other Pur- 
pofe. The Door is generally to theS. W. 

Thefe Tents are feldom pitched in the Mid- 
dle of Woods, or upon Heights, but upon Creek 
or River-fides, in Bottoms ; which may be done 
both for the Convenience of getting Water or 
Ice •, as alfo in refped of Warmth ; their Cover- 
ings being but the Thicknefs of one Skin, they 
muft be very cold •, fo they are under a Necefiity 
to get all the Afliftance they can from a Situa- 
tion ; and in Summer their Tents are not habi- 
table upon the Account of the Musketoes, unlefs 
they are full of Smoak. 

B b When 

i86 A V OY A<s 1^ forthe 

Novemb. When they are poor, and have not Skins to 
make a Tent of, they then only make Ufe of a 
Barricade, which is a thick Hedge made of the 
upper Part of young Pine-Trees, as is mention- 
ed to be done by the Fadory People when out 
of a Night, at a Diftance from their Tent, or 
the Faftory, with a Fire in like Manner before 
them •, and if there is any Snow, they clear it 
away from the Spot. Thefe Barricadoes are alfo 
ufed by the Indians, when they are Travelling 
either alone or two together, from one Part to 

How far Decency might caufe thefe Indians 
to cloath themfelves, does not appear •, but it 
might be that and the Nature of the Climate ; for 
though the Boys are admitted to go almoll naked, 
until they are ten Years old or more, the Girls 
wear a Frock, fuch as will be mentioned here- 
after, quite from their Infancy. To make their 
Cloaths of Skins, was not only a Thing plain and 
obvious in itfelf, as well as fuitable •, but they 
are under a NecefTity of fo doing, as thofe Parts 
fupplied nothing elfe which would anfwer the 
Purpofe i and their Induflry taught them to 
make the Skins foft and pliable, and to be clear 
of that Stiffncfs which would make them in a man. 
ner unferviceable. This Kind of Cloathing was 
in Ufe amongft all Nations in the earlieft Times ; 
and they agreed with the Indians not only in Ufe, 
but alfo the Form they made the Skins up in. 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl Pajage. 1 87 

The Indians have a large fquare Outer-Coat, Novemb. 
much like a Blanket in Shape and Size, made ei- 
ther of Deer Skin, or a Parcel of Beaver Skins 
fewed together. It hangs loofe from the Shoul- 
ders, trailing along the Ground, and is tied a-crofs 
the Bread with two Strings ; the Part that is be- 
hind the Neck, and on the Shoulders lay in Rolls •, 
fometimes they fet it up hollow behind like a 
Cope ; at other Times it lies flat like a Cape 
hanging Part down each Arm. It is painted on 
the Leather Side of the Skins with Strokes of 
Red and Black, like a Border, near to the Edge 
or outer Part of the Coat, round the Bottom, 
and fome Way up the Sides. This outer Coat 
is all chipped, or hanging in Thongs of about 
an Inch Width, and three Inches long, thofe at 
the Bottom •, but thofe up the Sides, and nearer 
the Head, lefs -, fome of which they alfo paint 
red. The beft drefTed People, in the earlieft 
Times, were thofe who wore the Skins of Beaft 
which they had taken amongft their Herds, or 
that they had killed in the Chacc. T hey were a 
long Time the Royal Mantle of Princes, and the 
Ornament of Heroes. Hercules was not drefTed' 
otherwife than in the Skin of a Lion oiNemea, 
One of the Argonauts^ following Jafon to fharc 
in the Expedition of Colchos, failed for the Coaft, 
and arrived covered with a beautiful Bull's Skin, 
which reached to his Heels. Acefies^ in Sicily, 
met AEneas, who landed on his Coaft, drefTed in 
the Skin of a Lybian Bear, having his Bow and 
B b 2 his 

1 88 ^Voyage for the 

Novemb, his Arrows. Bacchus and his Followers had no 
other Cloathing than wild Goat Skins -, alfo 
of Tygers, of Panthers, and of Leopards, 
which Beaft afterwards they have put to his Cha- 
riot •, though, without Doubt, the Invention is 
much later than his Time. 

In Eur ope y Afia^ and Africa^ many of the Na- 
tions had not abfolutely other Cloathing for many 
Years. At the Time of Crtefus, a Lydian, whofe 
Name was Sardanis^ got the Anger of that Prince, 
for giving him Advice, Juft in itfelf, but con- 
trary to his Ambition, for perfuading him from 
making War againft the Perfians, who lived at 
that Time like Savages : ^ " You go, fays he, 
«' Great King, to make War upon a People, 
" who have no other Apparel than Breeches of 
" Hide, and fomc Skins with which they cover 
«' themfelves ; who inhabiting a barren Country, 
« have no Choice as to what they will eat, but 
" muft eat what they can get ; nor is this Meal 
'* helped by Wine, their Drink at all Times be- 
" ing nothing but Water. They have no Figs, 
" nor any thing that is good ; fo there is no- 
" thing which you can propofe to gain by the 
" Attempt, fhould you be fuccefsful ; but on 
** the other hand, reflefl, you have an Infinite to 
'* lofe, fhould you be defeated.'* 

a Herod. Uh. N. 71: 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Faffage. 189 

^ Tacitus afllires us, the Germans had no other Novemb: 
Veftments than Firs. *^ Herodotus affures us the 
fame of the Jfricans j '^ Varro^ of the Gauls and 
Sardians j ^ ^/r^/7, of the People of Scythia and 
Thrace ; ^ Arrian^ of thofe of the J«i/Vj ; and 
s Biodorus Siculus reports the fame alfo of the 

After they had found out the Making of Silks 
and Linnen, they did neverthelefs ufe Firs for a 
long Time amongft thofe very People who work- 
ed with Thread or Silk. All Homer's Heroes are 
cloathed in Lions Skins, or in the Skins of Bears, 
"Wolves, or Goats, (^c. ^ j and Paris, who is re- 
prefented as a Beau, drelTed in nothing but a 
Leopard's Skin •, yet Penelope, Helen, and the 
other Grecian and Trojan Dames were excellent 
Needle- Women. 

As the Ancients agreed with our Indians in the 
Ufe of Skins, fo they did alfo in the Manage- 
ment, in making them flexible, and not ftiff, 
without which Way of preparing them, they 
would be hard, would fhrink, and be quite ufe- 
lefs. They, like them, leave the Hair on Skins, 
where the Fleece or Fir is foft and warm, as Bea- 
ver, Otter, &c. ; but, like them, where the Hair 
is hard and briftly, they then take it from the 

fc Tacit, de Mor. Germ. c Heroii. Lib. IV. N. 1 89. 

•* Farro, Lib. II. Rei ruftUa. « Virg. Lib. II. Geor. 

^ ^m««, Lib. VIII. e Diod. Sicul. Lib. I. c. 7. 

»> Homr, Iliad III. 

Skins i 

igo y^ V y A G E for the 

Novemb. Skins -, as they do with Moufe Skins. Befidei 
thus managing the Skins, the Ancients alfo, like 
our Indians^ ufed to fet off or ornament them ; 
which confifted either in the Manner of cutting 
them, chipped or hanging in Thongs as we have 
defcribed the Indians ; or in the Figures which 
they drew upon them, or the Colours which they 
painted them with, in which alfo they agree with 
our Indians, who, as mentioned, have like a red 
or black Border figured near the Edge of the 
Coat, and paint the Thongs which are at the 
Bottom, and in Part up the Sides. 

* The People of Lybia appear to be the firft 
who have fet this Art in Ufage, which we learn 
from Herodotus, when he tells us that the Greeks 
borrowed the Habit and the ^Egis of the Statues 
of Minerva from the Lybians of Numidia, with 
this Difference, that to the jEgis of the Lybian 
Women, the pendant Fringes, are not Serpents 
but fimple Thongs j but, as to the reft, the Drefs 
is the fame y and the Name itfelf fliews, that the 
Habit of the Statues of Minerva is borrowed 
originally from the Lybian Drefs -, for the Wo- 
men of Lybia have, more than of any other 
Thing their Garments of the ^geeSy that is, 
they are of the Goat's Skin curried, are figuered 
and painted red ; and it is from thefc Mgees, 
that is, from this fhe Goat's Skin cleared of the 

» Moeurs de Sauvages, P. 22, 

-^ Hair, 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage, 191 

Hair, that the Greeks have taken the Name of Novemb. 

The Indians make a Frock of thefe Skins, or 
Aiyi/#« which they wear under their outer Coat j 
this Frock is of Deer or Moufe Skin, reaching 
to the Knees, with a Slit only at the Neck, for 
the eafier Getting it on, and a Slit a little Way 
up each Thigh •, moftly with Sleeves that reach to 
the Wrift, and are joined to the Coat by a Seam 
three Inches down the Arm -, the lower Part they 
paint with two red Strokes, and alfo clip the 
Bottom to make it hang in fmall Thongs like 
Fringe, fome of which they alfo paint red ; and 
at the Part where the Arms are fewed on, or 
joined, they ufually ornament with Fringes made 
of Beads, and Brafs Tags, or with Work which 
is of Porcupine Quills, after the Manner of an 
Embroidery, and is what they call Nimmy 

Thofe Nations which left off the Ufe of Skins, 
yet they retained the Form in which they had 
wore them in the Make of their other Habits ; 
from thence the clofe Coat, and outer Robe both 
of the Greeks and Romans, and which is anfwer- 
able to the Frock and Tockie, or outer Coat 
of the Indians. The Greeks had the clofe Coat, 
and the outer Coat alfo, which agreed with the 
Romans Toga and Tunica j and the Diftinftion, 
according to the Criticks, confifted only in the 
Manner of wearing the outer Coat, which Coat of 


192 '^A V OY AG-E for the 

Novemb. the Greeks the Latins for that Reafon called 

Thefe outer Coats the Indians make Ufe of to 
cover themfelves with on Nights, and that feems 
to be the Cuftom amongft the Jews, a When 
under Barricadoes, they cover their Heads as 
well as the reft of their Body ; in bad Weather 
alfo wear them over their Heads, excepting 
thofe who buy a kind of Hoods at the Factory. 
The Ufe of this Tockie therefore is fufficiently 
evident, and the Ufe expreffes the Reafon of the 
Shape and make of it ; as to Covering the Head 
with it j the Romans did the fame at Times with 
their Robe : In Winter, or when Hunting, they 
tie this Tockie with Strings over their Breaft, and 
gather it up with their Belt clofe round them, fo 
as not to reach further than their Knees, for the 
fame Reafon are their Tokies made not to reach 
lower than their Knees, that they may not be 
troublefome in Walking •, when they wear thofe 
Tockies in their Canoes, they tie them in Folds 
over their right Shoulder, and fo pafs them under 
their left Arm, by which Means they have free 
Ufe of their Arms -, they have Sleeves of Skin 
with the Hair on, which they wear in Winter, 
when they have their Tockies clofe about them ; 
thefe Sleeves have two Strings over the Shoulders 
and one a-crofs the Breaft, which keeps them on. 

The Woman's Drefs is like the Man's, with 
no other Difference than that the Frock hath Slits 

» Exod. c. 22. V. z6. 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl Pajfage. 193 

made under the Arms, and the Frock is fome- Novemb. 
thing longer than the Frock which the Men wear; 
under the Frock both Sexes have Skins, which 
pafs between their Legs, and are faftened to a 
Strip of Deer Skin tied above the Hips ; a Man 
when in the Tent will ftrip himfelf of all his 
Cloaths but this j the Woman never undrefles 
herfelf further than her Frock. 

The Stockings are of the fame Materials as the 
Frocks, Ihaped according to the Leg, or as a 
Spatterdafh, leaving a Border where they are 
fewed up on the Side, of about four Fingers in 
Breadth, which they fcollop at the Edges ; thefe 
Stockings reach quite to the Thighs, and are 
made faft to the Strip of Deer's Skin round their 
Waift, garthered below the Knee with Garters 
made of Porcupine Quills coloured, and Deer's 
Sinews very neat. Thefe Stockings, as well as 
Shoes, they feldom wear in Summer. Thefe 
Stockings according to Father Lafitau^ are exadlly 
like thofe of the Parthian Kings of whom he had 
feen many Statues. Their Shoes are of Deer Skin, 
or Moufe Skin ftripped of the Hair, the Sole and 
upper Part the fame, without Heels, and ga- 
thered round the Inftep as a Purfe ; the Shoes 
are often worked up the Front with Porcupine ^ 

Quills, variouQy coloured, fome of thefe Shoes, 
as more convenient for keeping out the Snow, 
and at other Times the Wet of the Swamps reach, 
fome Way up the Leg, after the Manner of a 

C c As 

194 -^ Voyage for the 

Novemb. ^g ^q ^j^^ Faihion of their Cloaths, they flill re- 
tain the fame, but have changed the Materials 
fince their Acquaintance with the Fadorics •, for 
their Tockies, they often ufe Blankets, and they 
who winter near the Fadtories have generally 
Cloath Stockings : They have alfo acquired a 
Cuftom of wearing Caps made of Woollen Cloth, 
and of an oblong Form, fewed up on one Side, 
and at one End with a Piece of Tinfel round the 
Part next to the Face, or a Piece of Worfted 
Lace J and at the Corner which will be upon the 
Crown of the Head a Bit of Rabbits Down fewed 
on, or a red Feather. Thofe Indians who come 
down to trade will alfo buy Tinfel, laced Hats 
with a dyed Feather ftuck up in them, they will 
buy Woollen Coats made after the Englijh Manner, 
trimmed with Worfted Lace. Tire Hair on the 
right Side of the Head they cut quite clofe, and the 
Reafon feems to be, that their Hair might not be 
in the Way upon their taking Aim. This was the 
Cuftom of many Nations, but the M?//7a, who 
boafted their Defcent from the 'Trojans, had their 
Hair fo cut on the left Side ; there was great Di- 
ftin6tion amongft. the Ancients as to the Tonfure, 
and it was expredy forbid the Jews to make any 
Baldnefs on their Heads. 

The left Side of the Hair is left long and ga- 
thered up in a Knot, which hangs as low as the 
^ar, juft on the Summit of the Crown a Lock is 
tied up and ftands about three Inches above th.e 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. 195 

Head, like a Feather •, but this is rather the Novemb, 
Fafhion of the young Men, and feldom amongft 
thofe who are advanced in Years. Some wear 
round their Heads Fillets as narrow as Tape, 
made of green or red Woriled, with two Borders 
of Beads, with which they tie up their Hair alfo 
that is on the left Side, and the two Ends of the 
Fillet hang down upon the left Shoulder. Others 
have Wreaths of Skins, as Cats Skins round their 
Heads, others a Band made of an Herb like Box 
which they fmoak with their Tobacco ; fome 
have Birds, fuch as Ravens or Hawks, flit and 
fpread, fo put upon the Crown of their Head) 
with the Head of the Bird over their Forehead. 
Thefe Bands round the Plead feem originally to 
be for no other Purpofe, but, as they were with- 
out other Covering on their Heads, to keep their 
Hair tight and dole, that it might not be trou- 
blefome by the Blowing of the Wind ; it is ob- 
fervable, the Women never wear thefe Bands. 
The ancient Ufe of thefe Bands is evident from 
the Fauns, the Satyrs, the Sylvan Gods, and the 
Followers of Bacchus being crowned with them j 
and ^ Pliny particularly mentions, Ferunt que^ 
primum omnium Liberum Patrem impofuijfe capitis 
fuo ex edera : Bacchus as the firft that wore one 
of Ivy round his Head. Thefe Bands became in 
Time a Mark of Diftinftion and Refped, and 
were given as a R ecompence to thofe who carried 
the Prize at the Feails inftituted in Honour of the 

• Plin. Lib. xvi. c. 4. 

C c 2 God3.- 

jg6 ./f V o y A G E for the 

Novemb. Gods. The i?(jOT^wj, the Enemies of Kings, had 
many Sorts of thefe Crowns, for to acknow- 
ledge the different Services done to the Re- 
pubhck ; this Way of Reward being introduced 
amongft them by Romulus their Founder, he 
crowning Hojlus Hcjlilius, the Grandfather of 
Tullus Hojiilius, for being the firft Man that en- 
tered the Town of Fidenj with a green Wreath 5 
and thefe Bands or Crowns at length became the 
diflinguifhing Mark of Royalty. 

They will greafe their Hair, flick Feathers in 
their Hair, and ornament it with Bunches of 
Rabbits Hair, or Bits of Firr , and alfo with 
Beads, or a Bit of white Stone which they find in 
thefe Parts, and poUfh until it much refembles 
■white Glafs. The Women wear their Hair long 
on both Sides, reaching to their Shoulders, which 
they part on the Top, and will fometimes tie 
it up in Bunches on each Side their Face ; at 
other Times it hangs loofe •, they greafe their 
Hair as the Men do, ftick Bits of Firr in it and 
Beads, and paint it red, which is a Pradice alfo 
with the Men. 

The Women wear round their Necks Neck- 
laces of three or four Rows of Beads, which hans: 
down almoft as low as their Breafts •, fome wear 
large narrow Rings of Brafs, and at each Ear 
will have eight or ten Strings of fmall Beads 
which ihall reach to their Shoulders, which Beads 
they procure at the Fa(ftories. The Men as well 

Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. igj 

as the. Women have their Ears pierced, as alfo Novemb. 
their Nofc; Men will have frequently a Bit of 
Firr, which is of fome extraordinary Kind, hang- 
ing to their Ear by a Bit of String -, others have 
Ear-Rings made of Beads, of a white Stone, 
which we have mentioned, poliftied, and Bits of 
Brafs. Some will have, through the Grizzle of 
their Nofe, a String with a Bit of Copper about 
the Size of a Sixpence hanging to it, of a trian- 
gular Form i others a Pipe- Bead of about two 
Inches long, and two fmall Beads at the End of 
fuch Pipe-Bead •, this which is fo pendant from 
the Nofe flaps on the upper Lip, and you may 
fee them fometimes reach at it with their Tongues. 
Thefe Ornaments of the Nofe are ufed by many 
Nations at this Time, and were formerly an 
Ornament of politer Nations, as may be feen ex- 
^redy m If at ab, c. iii. v. 21. 

Upon their Wrifts the Women v/ear Bracelets, 
which they get of Tin or Brafs, fince they have 
known the Fadories •, are of about two Inches 
broad; they carve them themfelves, but thfeir 
Workmanfhip is no Way extraordinary. The 
Men have Collars made of Cloth, with Beads or 
Bits of white Stone fewed on them -, both Men 
and Women have alfo Belts which they girt their 
Tockie up with, and fometimes wear upon their 
Frock, of four Fingers in Breadth, made of 
Porcupine Quills ; alfo of Beads run upon fmali 
Deer Guts, the Outfide of the Belt Leather, and 
thefe Belts have at each End a Parcel of fmall 

Strips of Leather to make them fafb 


19S !/f V o y A G E for the 


The Bracelets and Ear-Rings were very an- 
cient, Abraham'' s Servant prefents them to Re- 
becca J the Jews borrow Ear-Rings of the Egyp- 
tians, but, in the Judgments threatened hylfaiah^ 
againft the Jews, there is Mention of taking 
away the Chains and the Bracelets, the Head- 
bands and the Ear-Rings, the Nofe-Jewels, i^c. 
The Per/tans wore a Collar about their Necks, 
and Bracelets on their Arms, and that the Collars 
were in Ufe amongft the Gauls is evident from 
the Account given of Manlius Torquatus, who 
was named 'Torquatus from "Torques a -Collar, 
which Anno U. C. 393. he took from the Gene- 
ral of the Gauls whom he had killed •, and Pliny ^ 
mentions the Roman Ladies wearing Gold Brace- 
lets, Rings on all their Fingers, Gold Neck- 
laces, or Collars, Ear-Rings, and other Orna- 

The Men and Women paint their Faces as 
well as their Hair, fometimes colouring half their 
Face with Vermilion, which they procure at the 
Fadlories •, Red being their favourite Colour ; at 
other times only make Strokes with their Fingers 
dipped in the Vermilion down their Nofe, or 
crofs their Face, juft as they fancy, without any 
Order or Method. What keeps the Paint on is 
the Greafe, with which they anoint their Face 
before they lay the Paint on •, fometimes 

' I/aiah, Lib. iii, ig, 70, 21. ^ Pl.'n, Lib. xxxiii. c. 3. 


Difcovery of a North-Wefl Paffage. 199 

tlie Men colour their Faces with Black Lead, Novemb. 
which is a Sign of their being angry, and alfo 
of their Hunger \ and when they go to conjure. 
The Minium or red Paint was fo much efteemed 
among the antient Romans^ as to be applied to 
their folemn Ufes. ^ Upon Feaft Days they 
painted the Statue of Jupiter with Vermilion, 
and befmeared the Bodies of thofe that entered 
the City in Triumph with Minium. ^ They 
painted in the fame Manner all the Statues of 
the Gods, of the Demi- Gods, of the Heroes, 
the Fauns, and the Satyrs •, and what is evidently 
expreffed in thofe Verfes of Virgil : ^ 

Pan Deus Arcadite venit, quern vidimus ipji 
Sanguineis ebuli baccis minioque, rubentem. 

It is to this alfo which the Poets and Painters 
allude, when they give the Fauns and Satyrs 
Faces extremely heightned, and of the Colour of 
Blood. '^ It was ufual with the Ethiopians when 
they went to War, to paint their Bodies half 
white, and half black : It was the Cullom 
amongft all the Nobility of the fame People, in 
the Time of P/z>j, to paint their Bodies red, and 
it was alfo the favourite Colour for the Statues 
of their Gods. We know from fufficient Autho- 
rity, that the Indians^ Africans.^ Neuri upon the 
Boryfthenes : The Geloni, Thupagetce^ Biidiniy 
Baftlid^^ and the yellow- haired Agathyrfi j the 

* Moeurs de Sauvages, P. 48, b ?//«)>, Lib. xxxiij. c. 7. 
e Virg, Ed. X. V. 23. ^ Pliny, Lib. xxxiii. c. 7. 


200 A Voyage for the 

Novemb. PiUs aiid fevcral other Nations painted them- 

On the Triumphs of the Romans, which were 
as the Reprefentation of 5^«^//fr in his Glory, the 
Conqfueror, going to the Capitol to facrifice to 
that God, appeared in his Car, his Face painted 
with VermiUon. Camillus triumphed in that 
Sort according to * Pliny, and St. Jfidore of Seville 
fays it was obferved by all, who were decreed 
that Honour^ 

This kind of Painting, which we have been 
fpeaking of, wears off, and requires frequent 
Renewing, but there is another kind of Painting 
pradifed by the Indians, whofe Country is North- 
Weft of Churchill Fa6bory, whither they come 
to trade, and the common Appellation given 
them is that of the Northern Indians •, th^y 
will have feveral Strokes in their Cheeks, the 
Colour being in the Flefh, black and much after 
the Manner of thofe Marks which are fo com- 
monly made upon People's Arms with Gunpow- 
der never to be removed. It is from this kind 
of Painting the Pi£ls had their Name, that Name 
fays St. Ifidore of Seville, perfedlly agrees with 
the Figure which their Body makes, which the 
Workman paints, by Graving many Figures 
with many fmall Pricks, which he makes with 
a Needle, and in which he infufes the Juice of 
^Plants that grow in their Country, to the End 

3 ^liny. Lib. xxxiii, c. ", ^Y . Moturs de Sauvages, p. 39- 


Difcovery of a North-Wefl Pajfage. 201 

that, their Nobles being marked upon all the Novemb. 
Members of their Body, they may diftinguilh 
themfelves from the Commonality by the Num- 
ber of the Charafters. Solinus fpeaks of the fame 
People, much after the fame Manner as St. Jfi- 
dore^ but the Northern Indians having no Di- 
flindiion of Rank amongfl: them, being all equal, 
there is not that Difference in the Marks, as5 
amongfl: the Pi£is •, as to their Nobility, what 
hath been mentioned is only to lliew a Sort of 
Agreement in the Manner of their Painting in 

This kind of Painting, which Father Lafitau 
calls the Cauftick, became difufed amongft the 
politer People, and only retained by the Barba- 
rians ; it was looked on infamous amongft the Ro- 
mans, they Branding their Slaves and Criminals 
with Marks of the fame Nature. 

The Indians, whom we have mentioned to 
paint their Frocks and their Tockies, ufe no 
other Art than taking a Stick, the End of which 
they dip in Goofe-Greafe, and afterwards in 
the Colour, and then Paint, which remains for a 
long Time before wore off; they only draw 
Lines of black and red, not attempting to deli- 
neate any Beaft or any kind of Animal •, the red 
and black have been the two Colours always in 
Ufe amongft them, and before they were fup- 
plied by the Fa6lories with the Vermiliofi and 
black Lead, they got their red Colour from 
D d fomc 

262 A V OVA G E firthe 

l^lovemb. fome Weeds which grew in the Mud, in Lakes 
or Rivers, and their black they had from a Mi- 
neral or a Stone, which Stones are frequently^ 
to be found by thofe who know them. 

I believe it will appear from what hath been 
faid, that there is a great Uniformity in the Ha- 
bits which the Indians ufe, and thofe which were 
ufed by the People of the earlieft Times, not in 
one Part of the Drefs only, but through the whole 
of it; but as the People became more polite as 
Kingdoms and Empires arofe, and Arts and 
Sciences increafed : From thence proceeded an 
Alteration, both in Cuftom and Drefs, from the 
State of Nature to that which was more fuitable 
to their prefent Circumflance. But, as this 
hath not been the Cafe of thefe Indians^ they 
have not made any conliderble Alteration in the 
Manner of their Life, but trod in the Steps of 
their Anceftors ; fo they haye had no Occafion 
either to change their Habit or Cuftoms ; as the 
following^ them was raofl fuitable with their 
Manner of Life, It is impoflible to conceive 
that there can be fo great Uniformity of Drefs 
and Cuftoms, as there is between thefe People 
and the moft antient, or the People of the earlieft 
Times, \yithout their being originally one ahd 
the fame People ; and as the People either in 
Europe^ Jfia, or America^ were the firft and 
earlieft People in thofe Parts with whom they fo, 
agree in their Drefs, or their Cuftoms ; that -is, 
s^a Evidence ojf the early Departure of thefe 


Dlfcovery of a North-Weji Pdffage, 203 

t*cople into America. I fpeak as to the Kinjki Novemb. 
Indians in particular, whom I apprehend from 
their Manners to be the firft Comers, and to have 
been drove to the Northward by later Settle- 

Marriage is in Ufe amongft thefe People-, For 
as to that chimerical Community, there is no Rea- 
fon to behevc it ever fubfifted. Cecrops^ who is 
reprefented in profane Hiilory, might bring it 
under fome better Regulation, with Refpe6t to 
the People he govered, and fubftitute Solemni- 
ties at the Contradting of thefe Alliances j and in- 
ftitute Monogamy, or the having but one Wife j 
but profane Hiftory alfo tells us of Marriage 
prior, inftituted by Jupiter^ who hath his Wife 
Juno. Marriagej with Refpedt to thefe Indians., 
tarries an Intereft with it, which induces thefe 
Indians^ and muft have induced all People in the 
fame Circumftance of Living 5 the fecuring to 
themfelves Children^ who would be a Preferva- 
tive for them againft Want in their old Age^ 
Andi in this Senfe, Children might well be ac- 
counted Riches. The Indian who hath Children 
hath fo many to hunt for him, when he is him- 
felf incapable, and without which he might be 
liable to ftarvei Therefore it is apparent, that 
amongft thofe People who lived by the Ghace, 
and amongft whom it is pretended this Commu- 
nity was ufed, it could never be •, by reafon that 
appropriating a Wife would haVe greatet Advan- 
tages. The Community again would be fuch a 
D d 2 State 

204 -^ Vo y A G E for the 

Novemb. State as would be quite contrary to the Interefl 
of the Woman ; for whilft there was a Commu- 
nity, and no Marriage, fhe would have no De- 
pendance as to her being maintained -, flie could 
not hunt for herfelf, nor promife herfelf to fliare 
in that which is catched by another •, but when 
fhe became a Wife this would be fecured to her, 
and there would be a further Obligation on the 
Man to maintain her, as the Children fhe (hould 
have would belong to her ; and if feparated would 
go with her, and he would lofe the Benefit of 
them. This is fufHciently fhewn by the People 
whofe Manners we are fpeaking of, and which 
will be made apparent as we proceed. 

The poetical Gentlemen and fome ancient Au- 
thors reprefent the People in the earliefl Times, 
not only ignorant of Arts and Sciences, but will 
not allow them common Underftanding, or a 
Knowledge fuperior to Brutes -, they defcribe 
them without a Capacity to conduct themfelves 
better than thefe Animals ; they feed them on 
Acorns and Roots ; lodge them in Dens ; allow 
them the Enjoyment of the Ibfter Sex promifcu- 
oufly ; make them void of all Virtue and Rea- 
fon, until there comes fome Law-giver or other, 
who infufes Virtue and Reafon, and forms a re- 
gular Society. Had we not facred Hiflory, 
which fhews the contrary, the leafl Reflection 
would deted: the Falfliood of it -, would not let 
us doubt but that they had Reafon fufHcient to dif- 
cern between what was convenientj and what was 


DifcoveryofaNorth'WeJlPaffage, 205 

not fo, to dired them in the Means propereft to Novemb. 
attain their neceffary Ends, fuch as proper Food 
and Cloathing, and the other Neceffaries of Life ; 
and after that they had found by Experience 
thofe which were belt, would purfue. And 
I believe this will be found the fame upon Inqui- 
ry, amongft all People called Barbarous People, 
not only with Refpe6t to the Indians I am treat- 
ing of, that thofe People who are otherwife cir- 
cumftanced do not a6t more reafonably in their 
Affairs than what the barbarous People do in 
theirs. And as this Cafe of Community appears 
contradi6lory to the Way of Life thefe Indians 
are in, we may judge it was equally the fame 
with thofe People, in the earlieft Times, who were 
circumftanced like them. 

The young Women are intirely, in Refpe6l 
of Marriage, dire6ted by their Parents ; they (hew 
no Inclination or Forwardnefs to Marriage, or 
any particular Regard to any young Indian. Pa- 
rents will often agree for the Marriage of their 
Children, before one of them fliall be born, con- 
■ditionally -, that if it is a Girl your Wife is with 
Child with, my Son fhall marry her. Afterwards 
if a Girl is born, he who hath the Son will take . 
the Girl Home, and maintain her until Ihe is 
marriageable. Others contrail for the Marriage 
of the Daughter not eight or ten Years old, 
and the intended Hufband will take her to his 
Tent, and keep her until fuch Time as fhe is 
grown up, 

A brilk 

zp6 .ji Voyage ftr tb^ 

Novemb. ^ ^nik young Fellow, and a good Hunter^ 
never fears the not getting of a Wife. He ap- 
plies to the Father of her whom his Intention is 
upon, or her Brother, if Head of the Family^ 
afks his Confeht, and makes him a Prefeht, after 
the Nature of the Country^ of Beaver^ or other 
Firs. The Confent obtained, he comes to the 
Tent at fuch Time as the Woman is there, and 
tofles into her Lap a Prefent, which, if near the 
Fadtories, is generally of a F^iece of Cloth ; her 
Acceptance of this, a Confent. The Marriage 
is then concluded, and the Contradt paffed; Upon 
tvhich he afterwards comes, of a Night, to the 
Woman, and lies under her Tockie ; is admit- 
ted to take hold of her Hand, fings to her, and^ 
perhaps, pays feveral of thefe Vifits before fhe 
fpeaks to him* Sometimes the Man^ after the 
Woman's Acceptance of the Prefent, will take to 
Hunting along with the Family fhe belongs to^ 
and continue in the fame Tent. It will be a 
Month or two before there is a Confummation of 
the Marriage •, the Time of which is always a 
Secret to every one but themfelves* 

It is generally ufual for the Husband to carry 
his Wife to the Father's Tent, or where he lived 
before amongft his own RelationSj or fet up a 
Tent of his own ; though fometimes they ftay 
•with the Wife's Relations. No Feafts are made, 
cither at the Time of the Contradb of Marriage, 
or at the Confummation. But, fometimes when 


Difcovery of a North-J^eft PaJJage. sojr 

the Husband takes the Wife away, if he hath had Novemb. 
an Opportunity to kill any thing, to make a Feaft 
with, he will then do it, to entertain the Wife's 
Relations and Acquaintance* 

The Simplicity of thefe Marriages are not with- 
out Example, both in facred and profane Hifto- 
ry. The Behaviour of Abimelech to Rebecca and 
Family have Circumftances fimilar to what hath 
been mentioned. Tacitus fpeaking of the Man- 
ners of the Germans, mentions fomething Vv^ry 
pertinent to what has been faid : Says to the Hufr 
band the Wife tenders no Dowry, but the Huf- 
band to the Wife. The Parents and Relations 
attend, and approve of the Prefents ; not Pre- 
fents adapted to Feminine Pomp, nor fuch as 
ferve to deck the new married Woman ; but 
Oxen, and a Horfe accoutred, and a Shield with 
a Javelin and Sword, By Virtue of thefe Gifts 
fhe is efpoufed. The Woman, on the other 
|iand, makes the Man a Prefent of fome Arms. 
This is the Whole of the Marriage ; thefe are 

the only Ceremonies which attend it. ^Bctter^ 

fays the famie Author, flill do thole Communi- 
ties in which none but Virgins marry, and their 
Views and Inclinations are only to b? a Wife. 
So they take one Hufband, as they have one 
Body, and one Life, without a Thought be- 
yond ; no further Defires; nor is it having th& 
Hiulband,^ but the State which they admire. 


2oS -^Voyage for the 

Novemb. The Confequences of thefe Marriages are a 
ftrift Alliance between the Hufband and theWife*s 
Relations; and, reciprocally, between the Wife's 
and the Relations of the Hufband, as to their af- 
filling each other. 

When an Indian finds he is a fufRcient Hun- 
ter, able to maintain more than one Wife, he will 
then procure himfelf a Second, and, perhaps, a 
Third ; a Number which they feldom exceed. 
There feems no Superiority or Diflinftion amongft 
them, or Difference as to firft or laft married ; all 
equally contribute to the Work of the Tent \ have 
no Jealoufies or Quarrels ; but if the Indians go 
Abroad to vifit fome other Tent, he ufually takes 
the youngefl with him. As to their Children 
there is never any Difference. The eldefl Son 
(whether by the firfl or fecond Wife) at the Death 
of the Father, becomes the Head of the Family. 

The principal Reafon of Poligamy amongft 
thefe Indians feems to confift in the Expeftation 
of a Number of Children. But it is obfervable 
amongft thefe Indians^ though the Women are of 
a vigorous Conftitution, that they have not many 
Children. There is no Proportion in the Num- 
ber of Children of thefe People to what muft 
have been formerly in other Parts, and efpecially 
in the North of Europe^ from whence came thofe 
Inundations of Barbarians, who frequently ravag- 
ed, and afterwards ruined the Roman Empire. 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Pafage: 209 

As to Divorces, if the Perfon whom her Pa- Novemb. 
rents have recommended is not agreeable to the 
Woman, fhe will quit himj and go to her Pa- 
rents, who will never oblige her to return, but 
marry her to fome other *, and fometimes if the 
Husband and Wife do not agree, or the Husband 
does not maintain the Wife, Ihe will go to an- 
other Indian^ who will take her as his Wife •, and 
if fhe hath a Child or Children, fhe takes them 
with her, as they are her Riches, her Security for 
future Maintenance ; the Husband mufl be con- 
tent, except (as I am informed) amongft thg 
Northern Indians^ he will go and battle the Man 
that the Wife is gone tOj and if he beats v/ill bring 
her back again. Sometimes the Husband will 
leave the- Wife, and then flie muft depend on 
her Relations. But it is feldom, when once they 
have had Children, that thefe Divorces happen. 

The L, of Romulus y that a Wife Ihould not 
leave her Husband » feems to allude to fuch a 
Cuftom as here mentioned. The Cuftom of the 
Wife going to the Relations, when feparated 
from the Husband, and the Reafon of her takins: 
her Child with her, explains what is faid in facred 
Hiflory of Hagar, and takes from that Severity 
which Sarah is fuppofed to be guilty of, in pro- 
pofing her being expofed to ftarve in the De- 
fert, no more being intended than a Separation 
from the Tent, and her going to her own Rela- 
tions, The whgl^ Tenor of the Story, the more 

E c it 

2IO A V OY AG "E for the 

Novemb. it is confidered, the more it vf'iW fupport this 

The Reward of any Infidelity, or a private 
Amour (tho' a Thing exceeding rare) is a Cudgel, 
or what is the higheil Dilgrace, the Cutting off 
the Woman's Hair. 

Tacitus mentions a Treatment of this Kind, 
ufed for the fame Offence, amongft the Germans. 
" Amongft a People fo numerous, fays that Au- 
" thor. Adultery is exceeding rare, a Crime in- 
" ftantly punifhed, and the Punifliment left to 
*' be inflicted by the Husband. He having cut 
*' off her Hair, expels her from his Houfe, na- 
*' ked, in Prefence of her Kindred, andpurfues 
*' her with Stripes throughout the whole Vil- 
*' lage.*' The Northern Indians are faid, upon 
this Occafion, immediately to cut their Throats. 
The Husband will fometimes feek an Opportu- 
nity of Ihooting fuch Perfon as hath done him an 

"When the Wife or Wives die, it is ufual for 
the Indians to marry again, feldom continuing 
for any Time Widowers. They never marry 
in a direct Line, as the Father to the Daughter, 
or the Son to the Mother -, nor do they marry 
in the firft Degree of the Line collateral between 
Brothers and Sifters oi the fame Father and fame 


Difcovery, pf a North-Weft Pajfage. ^| | 

The fole Care of the Husband, and fo of the No/emb. 
Men in every Family, is the Cbace. The Wo- 
men are to build the Tent, procure the Wood for 
the Fire, drefs the Provifion, and when a Deer is 
killed, go, by the Men's Direftion, to the Spot, 
paunch it, and fetch it Home. The Women alfofet 
Traps for Martins or Rabbits, and fifh at proper 
Seafons •, make Snow-fhoes, few their Cloaths, 
and drefs their Viftuals : Alfo, upon a Remove, 
the Woman draws the Sled \ the Man appoints 
where he will have the Tent built ; they go to 
the Spot, get one erefted againft his Return from 
Hunting •, or if he is prefent, he never aflifts to 
build the Tent. The Wife's Attendance on the 
Husband begins from the Time of their Marriage^ 
if they refide in the fame Tent. The Wives are 
never admitted to pull off their Socks, or Shoes, 
which they wear in Winter, before their Huf- 
bands, but are obliged to go out of the Tent, 
and there take them off •, then they bring them in 
and hang them up to dry. 

The Infants are bred up by their refpedlive 
Mothers •, they fuck, and continue it until they 
are two Years of Age, or upwards. The Wo- 
men make Ufe of a Cradle for their Children, 
which is of a flat Board, about three Feet long, 
and eighteen Inches broad, a Piece of thin Wood 
almoft as thin as Pafteboard fixed upon it, about 
four Inches high, rounded at the lower Part, but 
running parallel towards the upper Part of the 
E e 2 Board j 

212 1/f V o Y A G E for the 

Novcmb. Board, to this Piece of Wood they few a Piece 
of red Cloth, about three Fingers broad, mak- 
ing near the Edge a Quantity of Eyelid Holes. 
Within the Space encompaifed by this Piece ot 
Wood is the Child laid, put in a couple of Wrap- 
pers, and behind its Head a Cat's Skin, as a 
Prefervative for the Child's Head, in cafe the 
Cradle falls, and then they pafs a Strip of Deer 
Skin through the Eyelid Hples of the Cloth, and 
lace the Child in, fo as alfo to confine its Hands. 
The Woijien carry thefe Cradles at their Backs, 
with the Child's Back to theirs, and, in cafe of 
bad Weather one of the Child's Wrappers is 
long enough to pull over its Face ; they take 
the Children frequently out of the Cradle •, they 
go on their Hands and Feet before they learn to 
lland upright, fo crawl to the Mother for the 
Brealt, and take the Pap under her Arm, fhe 
fitting on the Ground, and working with her 
Hands at the fame Time as the Child is at the 

They are peculiarly careful in Winter of keep- 
'^' ing the Children's Feet warm with Rabbit Skins 
or Furr in their Shoes, and round their Ancles, 
and alfo their Legs and Knees, and half up their 
Thighs, with Stockings of Skin with the Furr 
on, or Cloth •, but the Boys have only a Skin 
Tocky for their Bodies, which is open before^ 
but with Arms to it; have nothing on their 
Backfides but a Skin which pafTes between their 
Legs, and the Girls have only a Frock which is 
clofe before, and reaches below their Knees. 



Difcovery of a ISiorth-WeJl Paffage. 213 

Their PafTion for Ornament is fo great, that Novemb. 
they do not omit it with refpeft to their Children, 
a Child of five Months old, will have a Wire 
through its Nofe, with a Bead fixed to it •, and 
Strings of Beads upon its Wrifts. When they are 
paffed the Ufe of the Cradle, the Mother then 
in journeying from Place to Place carries them 
at her Back: This Manner of letting the Children 
wear little Cloathing, and the Boys to be in 
Summer quite naked in the Tents, is the Practice 
until they are grown up. 

They feem in the firfl Part of their Time to 
be under the Care of the Mother j they, as foon 
as able, do little Offices about the Tent, after- 
wards learn to Trap and Filh with her, alfb 
pra6tife with a Bow and Arrow at the Shooting 
of fmall Birds, and, as they grow up, become 
Hunters and affiftant to the Family. 

This Education, how fimple it may feem, is 
all that they want ; and anfwers their Purpofe to 
procure fuch SuppHes and Necefiaries of Life, 
both for themfelves and others, as they are con- 
tent with ; and is attained without CorredVion, 
for Indians never beat their Children. They 
have an extreme Tendernefs for them, equal to 
a.nY Europeans-, but do not exprefs it in fuch 
CarefTes, or other Shews of Affedion, as is ufuai 
amongft fond Parents, efpecially to Children 
when young. They are docile, behave well to 


214 !/^ Voyage for the 

Novemb. thofe in the Tent with them, and fhew Obe- 
dience to their Parents j and afterwards for the 
moft Part turn out in Life, regular and virtuous. 
The Indians themfelves fay, that as to the Faultj? 
they commit when young, they have not Rea- 
fon, and, when they grow older, they will have 
Reafon, and will follow its Dilates, and corre6h 
their Follies. 

I forgot to obferve in the proper Place, that, 
when an Indian Woman is with Child, fhe ob- 
ferves no Difference, attends to the fame Fa- 
tigues, and fuppofes it aflifts her Labour and 
ftrengthens the Child ; when the Time of her 
Delivery is, fhe is attended by others, and the 
Men quit the Tent, or fhe is feparated off by a 
Curtain of MoufeSkin : Their Labours are eafy, 
and the next Day the Woman will be abroad in 
the Woods with her new-born Child at her Back^ 
to get her Fuel, and purfues her ufuai Bufmefs 
as before. 

Thefe Indians have no manner of Corn, Pulfes 
or Roots in ufe amongft them •, probably becaufe 
they live by the Chace, which caufes a trequent 
Removal, and, being in fingle Famihes, have 
neither Opportunity to attend it, or Strength ta 
cultivate it ; for it cannot be attributed to the 
Climate j wild Corn being to be found even fo 
high to the Northward as Ha\s\ I (land, by Tork 
Fort. Their whole Subfiftance is Flefh, which 
they chiefly boil fo as to let the Gravy be in it -, 


Difcovery of d North- Wejl Pajfage. 215 

the Northern ludiam eat it aim oft raw, and Novemb. 
blame the others faying, they lefien their Strength 
by eating their Viduals fo much dreffed as they 
do. They have now by Trade from the Fac- 
tories Brafs Kettles in which they boil, other- 
wife they make ufe of Nockins, which are of 
Birch-Bark, take a fquare Piece, flalh it at the 
four Corners fome Way in, then there are four 
Sides which they ean fet up, and they few toge- 
ther with a Rim, round the Top they put an 
Edge of Porcupine Quills, thefe they make of 
various Sizes, and are frequently to be feen in 
England, The Northern Indians^ who are not 
provided with Kettles, put Water in thefe make 
Stones red-hot and put into this Water to heat it, 
and fo drefs their Meat : The other Indians alfo 
ufe them who are not better provided, fetting 
them over the Fire, and they boil Water very 
well. They have round Platters made of Wood, 
which are the Knobs of Trees hollowed and 
fmoothed, both Infide and out, with a Beaver's 
Tooth, they have Cups alfo, with Handles made 
out of Knobs of Trees *, the Purpofe of Spoons 
and Knives is anfwered by their Hands : They 
have no fixed Times of Eating, but are led by 
their Appetite. When they wanted to feparate 
the Parts of a Deer, before they knew the Euro- 
peans, they ufed Inftruments made of Bone, and 
Iharp Stones, which they faftened with Thongs 
of Leather at the End of a elift Stick, 


2i6 AY OY AQ-E for the 

Novcm . If they roaft their Provifion, it is by running a 
pointed Stick like a Skewer through it, and (lick- 
ing one End in the Ground clofe by the Fire •, 
they eat the Entrails of all, either Fifh or Birds, 
cfpecially if Provifion is ihort •, and which they 
are not very nice in cleaning. From the Meats 
they boil they have the Advantage of the Broth, 
which they call Sagamite^. and in Winter Weather 
fet it out in the Kettle to freeze till it becomes 
Ice, and lb portable Soop. 

From the Severity of the Winter, they draw 
the Advantage of having their Provifion froze , 
fo it is kept fweet, and is a ready Supply as they 
want ; though it happens amongft fome of the 
Indians^ that, fo long as they are in PoflelTion of 
any Provifion, they will not leek for more ; the 
Confequence of which is, perhaps, a Falling for 
a Time, but this they will bear with a furprifing 
Patience, and without Complaining •, and they 
have alfo, when they cannot fucceed in Hunting5 
a kind of Referve, which is their Dogs, of which 
there are generally fome belonging to every Tent, 
Thefe they kill, and a Dog is reckoned at all 
Times as a great Delicacy. The Way of flaugh- 
tering the Dog is, the tying the Mouth, then 
taking a ftreight Awl and prick it into the FJeart j 
afterwards fingcing him, then roafling him intire. 
Entrails and all before the Fire : It is faid where 
Dogs have failed, and no Provifion was to be got, 
there have been Inftances, but thcfe thought 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Tajfage. 217 

very extraordinary, of their deftroying their Novemb. 
Children, and of Wives deftroying their Huf- 
bands and eating them •, but thefe Ads are done 
in Extremity, and through a preffing NecelTity \ 
fome Times when they can get no Provifion, they 
will live on the inner Bark of Juniper and Firr 

In Summer and in Spring, and when the 
Weather is not frofty, they have a Way of pre- 
ferving their Provifion, by taking out the Bone* 
then parboiling it, and afterwards drying it in 
the Smoak ; they will alfo fmoak-dry Fifli, 

Are never wanting in Hofpitality to each other, 
when they come to a Tent, they will give them 
of what they have ; but this Ceremony is ob- 
ferved, that they never go into a Tent, though 
they are the neareft Relations to thofe who in- 
habit it, as a Brother or Sifter, but ftand on the 
Outfide until invited in by thofe in the Tent. 

If they have great Succefs in Hunting, and 
they have Neighbours about them, then they 
will make a Feaft, upon which a Stick is fent to 
every one, who it is defired fhould come ; this 
!S to the Men, every one brings his Diih with 
him, they all fit down upon the Ground in a 
round, being there fome Time before the Vidluals 
is ready, filling that Time with a Converfation 
of their Country and of their Travels •, the Sup- 
per is prepared by the Mafter of the Tent, and, 
? f when 

2i8 A V OY AG E for the 

Novemb. vvhen ready, he gives it to one of the Company 
to lerve out, which is a Mark of Efteem ; per- 
haps that Perlbn gives it to another thinking him 
more worthy of the Honour ; he that ferves, 
fings, telhng them there is Provifion in Plenty, 
they muft eat heartily, and they are all welcome, 
or to thatEffedj they then all thank him, which 
js done by expreffing the Word Oho^ the ufual 
Thanks of thefe People. The Fat is poured 
amongil the Meat, and afterward they eat the 
Sagamite^ or what it is boiled in, and eat until 
they cry our, I have enough •, the Women . are 
feldom invited, but they come, creep under the 
Side of the Tent behind their Hufbands, and they, 
get as much as the Men -, what is left of any 
Man's Eating, it is not returned, but he carries it 
Home : They have no Bread as mentioned be- 
fore, but they have dried Deer's Fat, much af- 
ter the Manner of Lard, which they cat as Bread, 
after the Eating, they go to Singing, and then 
put an old Man in the Middle, clearing the Fire 
away, who beats on a kind of a Drum, and then 
they go to Dancing -, fometimes it is a Feaft of 
raw Meat •, then, after Thanks, they take it up 
and carry it Home ; they have no Liquor at 
thefe Feafts but W^ater, or the Sagamite, which 
they may as well drink as eat j fo they cannot be 
intemperate, they knowing nothing of ftrong 
Liquors until their Acquaintance with the Euro- 
'peaans. * As to the Saganiite or Broth, when 
^Gideon entertained the Angel, he is faid to put 

zjua-^fs, Ch,.vi. V. ig. 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. ^19 

the Flelh in the Balket, and the Broth in a Novemb. 

Thefe Feafts are generally made on no other 
Account but Plenty ; they have no particul|r 
Days, no Commemorations, all Days are to 
them the fame, nor do they regard Births or 
Marriages, except if the Hufband chance to have 
a Plenty of Game, when he is going to take, 
his Wife Home, he may make a Treat to li/^^-' 
Friends as hath been mentioned, and before they 
go to War. 

The Feafts amongft the y^gyptians were cele- 
brated with great Temperance, and it was in 
common amongft other People, as » Father Z^- 
Jiiau fhews on good Authority ; and it is certain 
that the Perfians, only drank Water in his Time 
according to the Account o'l Herodotus. Thefe 
Feafts are with that Simplicity as the reft of their 
Cuftoms ; when their Bellies are full, they are 
in high Spirits. The Women enliven the Con- 
verfation, they get to Singing and then to 
Dancing i there are many who have feen amongft 
politer People Feafts determined in that Manner. 

Their Singing is very Mean, and the Subjed: 
ufually compofed as it is uttered, and confifts of 
a few Words often repeated, which will be 
Thanks to the Party who entertains them, or 

a Moeun de Sauvages Tom. II. P. 151. 

F f 2 about 

220 'A Vo y A G E for the 

Novemb. about Hunting, or that there will be a good 
Goofe Seafon, or fomething equally trifling •, and 
they will all be finging at one Time, then danc- 
ing ', the Dancing chiefly confifl:s in the Motion 
of their Feet, fturring them along the Ground, 
witffbut any Activity or Motion of the Body, or 
•. :any lifting up of the Feet •, the Head is inclined, 
and they hang down their Arms. 

The Ifraelites, after they had adored the Gol- 
den Calf, fat down to eat and drink, and rofe up 
to play, that is, to dance and fing, according to 
the Interpreters -, and, we may fuppofe, it was 
after the Faihion of the Egyptians whom they 
were now in^itating, as to their Idol. 

There is a great Similitude between thefe Feafls 
and thofe infl:ituted by Lycurgus. The Manners 
he efl:abliflied amongfl: his People were thofe of 
the Ifle of Crete, who were themfelves but Co- 
piers from others ^. At thefe Feaflrs none but 
Men were entertained -, each contributed, but he 
who had extraordinary Succefs in the Chace was 
obliged to furnifli the Feafl; with a good Part of 
\\\s Game. Every one had originally his parti- 
cular Difh, but that was afterwards altered ; and 
the Peribn who provided, diflributed, and gave 
that which was efteemed as the mofl: favourite 
Pieces to thofe who were moft diflinguifliable, 
cither for their Prudence in Councils, or Bravery 

b Herod. Lib. I. N. 71, Mfffun ds Swvag. l^c. Tom. I. 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Vafjage, 221 

in A6lion, or their Exercife in the Schools. And Novemb. 
the Declaration of the Perfon who diftributes, 
there being a Plenty of Provifion, ^c. is not un- 
like that Proclamation made at the Feaft of Ly- 
curgus, of the Name of him who makes the Feaft, 
of the Reafon of it, and which was for him aSub- 
je6l of Praife for his indefatigable Application to 
theChace, his Readinelsto bear Fatigue, and that 
every one was fenfible of the great Affeftion he 
had for his Country, and his Generofity to his 
Fellow-Citizens. The Manner of the Indian 
Feaft will be plainly perceived in this Feaft of 
the Spartans^ with fuch Alteration as the Differ- 
ence of Circumftance had made j but the ftrong 
Lines of the other are plainly to be feen through 
all the Shading, whence they came : And as the 
Spartan Laws were copied, in Part, from the Cre- 
tans^ and their own Alterations confidered, it 
would not have been ftrange if thefe Feafts had 
retained lefs of what was feemingly the ancient 
Manner of Feafting, and by them ufed before 
they formed themfelves into a Government. 

The Manner of the Singing, and, amongft 
the Indians, Dancing, is in itfelf mean, and not 
well to be underftood, but by either the Hearing 
one, or having the Sight of t)ie other. Their 
Mufick is equally mean. Their Drum, or Tam- 
bour, is a Skin ftretched tight over the Mouth ot' 
a Kettle, or any thing that will yield a Sound, 
and it is beat with a Stick. 


222 >€VOYACE for the 

Novemb, Father Lafitau obferves that, ^ *' amongft the 
'* Number of Inftruments invented, it is difficult 
" to determine which were thofe that were firfl 
" inftituted -, they having had various Changes, 
" according to the Times, and the Tafte of the 
** People. Moreover, they have had different 
" Names, and they continued to give thefe 
*^ Names fuccefTively to feveral Inftruments 
'^^ which they had fubftituted in the room of the 
" former. 

" But thofe, neverthelefs, which they figure 
*' in the Orgies o^ Bacchus, and the Mother of 
" the Gods, appear to be but two Sorts, of which 
" the moft ancient Authors give us any Ac- 
" count. 

" The one a Kind of Tambour, called Tympa- 
" num ', and the other a fpherique Machine, 
^"^ named Rbombos, upon the Account of its Fi- 
** gure ; and it made a Noife to which they gave 
** the Names of Crotalum and Crepitactihim : It 
*' is that wKxch. yipollonius exprefles to us in that 
*' PalTage, where the Phrygians prayed to have 
*' an Opportunity to eftablifli the Ufage of ap- 
" peafing the Goddefs Rhea with the Rhomb, 
" and the Tympanum." 

As our Indians agree with thefe in the Ufe of 
the Tympanum, in as near a Refemblance, as to 

* Moeurs de Sauvages, Tom. I. p. 204. 


Difcovery of a North-Weji Paffage. 223 

Mufick, as they can -, io alfo they have the Novemb. 
Rhomb, which is a Kind of Rattle made of Skin, 
and fmall Stones within Side, to make a Noife, 
with a Handle, by which they fliake it. It is 
an Amufement they ufe as they fit in their 
Tents, to fing to the Rattle of it. 

The Humanity of thefe Indians the one to the 
other is great, which is inftanced in the Cafe, that 
if one of the Indians have feveral- Children, fiich 
Indian will part with one of fuch Children to an- 
other Indian who hath loft his, by Way of Con- 
folation, and that Indian adopts his Child, fo 
given, as it becomes in every Refpect as his own. 

They make great Ufe of Tobacco, which is 
that of Brafil, fold at the Faftoriesj and they 
have an Herb, whofe Leaf is much like to Box^ 
which they dry, then mix with Tobacco, which 
moderates the Heat of it. For want of this they 
will mix Buds of Poplar with their Tobacco. 
They have Boles of Pipes, which they make of 
a Stone, and fix a fhort Stick to it, to draw the 
Smoak by ; and if they get Englip Pipes they 
always ufe them very fhort. It is a high Com* 
pliment, and the greateft Sign of Friendfhip, to 
fmoak out of one and the fame Pipe with them. 

This Cuftom of fmoaking Tobacco, or other 
Herbs, feems to have been well known amongft 
the Ancients •, but being difufed, as we may fup- 
pofe, amongft the Greeks^ as well as amongft the 


224 -^Voyage for the' 

Novemb. Latins^ and other People of Europe the Revival 
of it is looked on as an entire new Practice or In- 
vention, or as what hath never been done before, 
TUny fays fufficiently to let us know that the Pipe 
and Smoaking were not unknown in his Time \ 
and that they were ufed phyfically, on certain 
Occafions. He inftances this in a Remedy againft 
Melancholy ; and his Words are very decifive ^ : 
" Fimi quoque aridi, fed pabulo viridi pajio hove, 
" fumum arundine haufium prcdejfe tradunt.** 
The Smoak of the dried Dung of an Ox fed in a 
green Meadow, taken into the Mouth by a Reed, 
will be of great Service. " As to Smoaking, He- 
rodolus, fpeaking of the Majfagetes, who dwell by 
the Jraxis, they have Trees, fays he, the Fruit of 
which is of fuch a Nature, that being put into a 
Fire which they have made, and which they 
croud round, they will be intoxicated by it, as the 
Greeks with Wine, and in Proportion as they caft 
it into the Fire, fo they will be more and more in- 
toxicated, until at laft they get up and fing and 

What Herodotus fays of thefe People, Pompo- 
Tiius Mela and Solinus fay the fame alfo of the 
People of Thrace, 

'^ Certain People in "Thrace, fays Pomponius 
Mela, do not know the Ufe of Wine. Never- 
thelefs, when they make a Feaft, they caft fome 

a Pliny y Lib. xxviii. c. 17. ^ Herod, Lib, L N. 21 «. 

• Fomp. Mela. Lib. ii. c. 2. di Ihrccia. 


Difcovery of a North-Weft Pajfage. 22 ^ 

Seeds into the Fire which they fit round, the Novcmb. 
Odour of which will caufe a Lightnefs of Spirits 
almoft like to Drunkennefs. 

^ In their Feafts, fays Soling they fit round the 
Fire, Men and Women, and calling fome Seeds 
of certain Herbs therein, and which they take the 
Smoak of, thinking Drunkenneft a Pleafure, to 
have their Senfes quite gone, as is cuftomary 
with thofe who have drank too much Wine. 

* Strabo^ in his Defcription which he makes 
of the Manner of the Indians^ fays, that every one 
carried always with him a Pouch full of medicinal 

What Straho fays as to medicinal Herbs car- 
ried by the Indians in a Pouch always about them 
it is agreeable to the Pradice of the Indians^ of 
carrying the Herb they fmoak in their Skippen- 
Torkin, or the Bag which they have with them> 
and in which they carry their Pipe, Flint, Steel, 
and Knife. 

It was the Praftice of thefe Indians to fmoak 
Herbs, before they knew the Europeans, they 
having all their Tobacco from the Failories, with 
which now, as mentioned, they alfo mix Herbs. 
It is probable they had Pipes, by which they took 

^ Sc/in. c XT di Tlracum morihus. ^ Strabo, Lib. xv» 

G g their 


226 A Voyage for the 

Novemb. their Tobacco, before they had Trade with the 
Fadory, as they have the Boles of Pipes, which 
they make themlelvcs, of Stone ; and the famolis 
Pipe, or Calumet of Peace or War, or the great 
Pipe i they have a Tafte, as the 'Thracians^ and 
the other People fpoke of, to receive Smoak up 
the Noftrils, as well as by the Mouth -, not as they 
break all their Pipes fhort, but as it is a Praiftice 
amongft them to take a large Quantity of Smoak 
into their Mouths, then fliut their Lips clofe, and 
let the Smoak to come out by their Noftrils. 

The Pipe Part of the Calumet, is two Feet 
long, made of ftrong Reed or Cane, amongft 
fome of the Americans ; but amongft thefe Peo- 
ple, of Juniper, adorned with Feathers of all 
Colours, interlaced with Locks of Womens 
Hair. They alfo add to it two Wings of the 
moft curious Birds they can find for Colour. 
The Head or Bole of this Pipe is of a red 
Stone polifhed like Marble, and bored in liich a 
Manner as one End is for the Tobacco, and the 
other End faftens to the Pipe. This w the ge- 
neral Defcription of it ; but they adorn the Calu- 
met varioufly, according to their Genius and the 
Birds they have in their Country. Father Hen- 
nepin^ in his Account of America, tells us, " this 
" Calumet, or Pipe, is a Pafs and fafe Conduct 
*' amongft all the Allies of the Nation who have 
4' given it ; and in all Embaflies, the AmbalTa- 
" dors carry that Calumet as the Symbol of 
*' Peace, which is always reipected •, for the Sa- 
^ " vages 

Difcovcry of a North-JVefl Pajfage. 227 

vages are generally perfuaded that a great Mif-Novemb. 
fortune would befal them, if they violated 
the Publick Faith of the Calumet. All the 
Enterprizes, Declarations of War, Conclu- 
fions of Peace, as well as all the reft of their 
Ceremonies are fealed, if I may be permitted 
to fay io, with this Calumet, They fill that 
Pipe with the beft Tobacco they have, and then 
prefent it to thofe with whom they concluded 
any great Affair, and fmoak out of the fame 
after them." 

The Calumet is very ancient, as may be judg- 
ed from the Refemblance it bears to the Cadu- 
ceus of Mercury, who was the MefTenger of the 
Gods, and was a Deity which the Greeks had 
from the Egyptians, and the other barbarous Peo- 
ple. The Caduceus of Mercury was a Sign of his 
being a MefTenger, and, as fuch, entitulcd him 
to be ufed as a Friend where-ever he paffed •, juft 
the Purpole of the Calumet, and the Agreement 
of the Calument with the Caducens, both in Ufe 
and Form, is almofl a demonftrable Proof, that 
they could not be the diflinct Inventions of Peo- 
ple, of thofe in America, and of thofe in Egypt, 
or other Parts. 

The Difference between the Calumet and the 
Caduceus is, the Serpents which wind about the 
Caduceus of Af^rfwrj, as is exprefTed by the Creeks 
and Romans, in all the Statues and Reprefentations 
of that God, belongs not to the Calumet of the In- 
G g 2 diavs \ 

228 A V o Y A G IE. for the 

Novemb. Hans •, and, on the other hand, the Pipe, which 
is fo material a Part in the Calumet amongft the 
Indians^ is not known to belong to the Caduceus. 
1 have already obferved, that the Indians them- 
felves vary in the Ornaments of the Calumet, 
only agree in what is the mod Effential of it, 
and the Calumet agrees with the Caduceus in 
like Manner in the moft effential Part, as the 
Staff and the Wings, which were all that was 
received from Apollo^ the Serpents being an Ad- 
dition afterwards. 

Thefe Indians have no Government ; every 
Mailer of a Family is without a Superior. Like 
Inftances in the earlieft Times are too obvious to 
need any Quotation. But when they engage in 
a Voyage to Trade, feveral Families together, 
in fuch a mixed Company it is neceffary fome one 
fhould prefide ; and alfo for them to have a Guide 
to fnew the Way. So it an Indian who is dif- 
tinguiflied for his being a good Voyager, and a 
Ikilful Trader, propofes to be a Guide to go down 
to trade with the Fa6tory, why then the other 
Indians will join him, obey his Direflions during 
the Voyage, while at the Factory, and upon their 
Return •, but no longer does the Obligation con- 
tinue. Thefe Leaders are called Captains by the 
Faflory People •, and when thefe Captains are 
down at the Facftory are prefented by the Gover- 
nors with aTinfel-lacedCoat, much like a Drum- 
mer's, with a Tinfcl-laced Hat, and a painted 
Feather ftuck in it j will have Englijh Stockings 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl Pajfage. 22 

of two Colours, and, perhaps, an Indian Shoe on Novemb. 
one Foot, and an Englijh one on the other. He 
is admitted into the Factory, which the other In- 
dians are not, and fmoaks with the Governor ; 
alfo is in the Room with the Governor at the 
Time of Trading, the other Indians receiving 
their Commodities attheOutfide of the Faftory, 
through a Window. All which Steps of the Cap- 
tain's are to make him appear confiderable in the 
Eyes of his Companions •, and thefe Favours they 
do not attain gratis. 

They are alfo Indians who are of diftinguilhed 
Merit, that are Captains of Rivers •, which is no 
more than that they are the leading Indian of the 
Indians about that River, or a Perfon whom the 
others confult in fuch Affairs as they think his 
Advice necefiary in ♦, and they will attend to what 
he at any Time may propofe, as to going in Par- 
ties to Hunt, to War, or to Trade •, but he is 
without Power to enforce what he would effedb ; 
they are intirely free, as to any Obedience which 
he can demand of them •, all he can do is only by 
the Efteem which the People have for him •, that 
lefiened, his Authority is gone. 

Where Murder is committed by one Indian 
on another, and they of feparate Families, there 
is no Remedy, or any Way of bringing the Mur- 
derer to Juftice by pubUck Authority •, all the 
Satisfaction that is taken is by a private Perfon, 
as the nearefl Relation of the Indian killed will 


230 A Voyage for the 

Novemb. feek an Opportunity, from a Bufh, to fhoot the 
other Indian who did the Murder. Then a Re- 
lation of the Murderer will take an Opportunity 
to (hoot the Indian who killed the Murderer : 
The Relation of the laft killed will feek a like 
Opportunity to revenge his Death •, and, perhaps, 
it becomes, at Length, general, the Men of 
both Families taking all Opportunities to deftroy 
each the other •, and the Women, for Want ot 
the Mens AfTiftance, are expofed to the utmoft 
Hardfhips to fupport themfeives, and are often 
ftarved. The Manner of this Revenge bears 
fome Refemblance of what Cain feared after the 
Murder of Jbel. 

If the Perfon killed was of one Family, or of 
the fame Cabbin with that Perfon who killed him, 
thofe of the Family or Cabbin will take an Op- 
portunity, when the Indian who killed the other 
is drunk (at which Time all Indians are fuppofed 
to tell the Truth) to ask. his Reafons for the Mur- 
der ; if he fays he did it when drunk, or can 
give a Reafon as that it was accidental, or what 
fhewed it was not the Effed of his Malice, he is 
conlidered in the Tent as he was before •, but if 
he cannot excufe himfelf, but it appears to be a 
malicious A61, he is admitted ftill to live amongft 
them, but in fuch a defpifed Manner as it makes 
the R emainder of his Life wretched •, and there 
have been Inftances where they have not been 
able to bear with the Contempt, and have made 
themfeives away. ^ The Story of the Woman of 

> 2 Sam, ch. 14. 


Difcovery of a North-Jfefl Paff'age. 23 1 

Tekoa, fent by Joab to David, to recal Abfalom, Novemb. 
when in Exile, after the Murder of his Brother 
Ammon, fhews us tliere was fomcthing of this 
Law in Pra6lice among the 'Jews \ that the Fa- 
mihes had Cognizance of thefe Affairs. She 
feigns that flic had two Sons, who quarrelled, 
and, in fuch Quarrel, one killed the other, and 
the furviving one, fhe a Widow, was the only 
Child fhe had. The Relations they infifted, led 
by the Profped of the Inheritance, that the Mur- 
derer fhould be delivered up to them, that they 
might kill him, according to the Right which 
they had to do Juftice in this Cafe •, which 
obliged her to fly to the King, to hinder the 
Execution of their Intents, which would plunge 
her in the greateft Afflidion, and reduce her to 
the extremeft Want. 

Since their Acquaintance with the Europeans^ 
that thefe Indians could obtain Brandy, the Vice 
of Drinking is pretty frequent with them ; but 
whatfoever is done by one to the other when 
drunk, even if one bites the other's Nofe off, it 
is excufed, becaufe it was done when he was 
drunk, and no MaHce is bore. 

Theft is very odious amongft them ; but the 
Indians will pradlife, it when they come down 
to trade, if they can ; and, if detected, will be 
afraid that the other Indians fhould know it, on 
Account of the Scandal. 


2^2 ^Voyage for the 

Novcmb. Befides the Captains there are two other Dif- 
tindions, the Dodors and Jiiglers. 

. The Dodor afFedls, and takes Care to fee the 
Go;5fernor to fmoak with him, as well as the 
Captain does i buys a little Trunk of Medicines, 
which Trunk is filled with Sugar-Plums, Spanijh 
Liquorice, and a Parcel of other Stuff much of 
the fame Kind, and hath it brought out of the 
Fadory, after him, by fome Englijb Man. The 
Dodor alfo buys Prints, which he takes Care to 
Ihew as he proceeds from theFadory to his Tent. 
The Indians who are not in the Secret of the Fee, 
im.agine that the Dodor is certainly a Great Man, 
for to have fuch an Honour as an Englijh Man to 
wait on him, and fuppofe it is all done out of 
Refped to his great Skill and Underftanding. 
"When the Dodor is fhewed this Trunk, at the 
Time of buying it, he is told, this is good for 
a Cold, that for a Cut, ^c. though they may be 
applied in every Cafe with equal good or hurt. 
But what they are good for, he bids his Wife 
to remember* 

Thefe Dodors, if I am rightly informed, are 
chiefly called upon in chirurgical Cafes-, and they 
have fome Knowledge of Plants, with which 
they will do great Cures, though, probably, the 
Conftitution of the Patient ufed to Exercile, and 
iinufcd to Delicacies, may greatly contribute. It 
is this their Excrcife and Temperance that caufes 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl Pajfage, 233 

them to know few Diforders ; and the moft fre- Novemb. 
quent Remedy they ufe, when ill, is Sweating \ 
which is performed after this Manner : 

They cut Aider, or other pliant Sticks, and 
then take and ftick the Ends in the Ground •, To 
the Sticks form (o many Arches interfering one 
the other, high enough for a Perfon to fit under, 
or, when upon his Knees •, fometimes made large 
enough for two. Over the Sticks they put Bea- 
^tx Coats, or other warm Coverings, making a 
Fire at fome Diftance off, and in that Fire they 
put large Stones ; when thefe Stones are hot, 
they take and carry them into the Tent, and lay 
them on Sand •, fo until the Tent is extreme hot. 
Then goes in the Patient ; if a Woman, in her 
Frock \ if a Man, naked ; and there frays until 
the Tent cools, v.'hen they either run into the 
Water, or the Covering is flung off; and the 
Patient will fit fcraping the Sweat off, all the 
Covering fo fiung oil, and this in the cold Spring 
Weather ; or when he goes immediately out of 
the Tent into the Water, it fhail be when there 
is Ice in it, receiving no Damage. 

^ Herodotus mentions the Purifications of the 
Scythians, who are fweated after the fame Man- 
ner : He fays, " that when the Scythians have 
*« interred their Dead, they purify, as we fhall 
" mention j firft they cleanfe the Head ; as to 

' Herod. Lib. iv, N 73. 

H h *« the 

234 -^ V o Y A G E for the 

Novtmb. *t the Body, this is what they do : They take 

*' three Pieces of Wood, which they incline 

** one tov/ards the other, and on the Outfide 

" they put Coverings of Felt; and they caft: 

" Stones red-hot into a fmall Cheft which ftands 

" in the Middle-, within fide the Pieces of 

*,' Wood and the Covering. ^ The Lacedemo- 

" nians and Lufitanians fweated after the fame 

*' Manner as Strabo gives us Reafon to believe; 

" the People o^ Lufitania, fays he, who dwelt 

*' upon the Borders of the Duero, have, as we 

" are allured, abfolutely the fame Cuftoms and 

" the fame Ufages which were obferved at La- 

" cedemon •, they anoint themfelves with Oil twice 

" a Day, they fweat themfelves with red-hot 

" Stones, and wafh themfelves in cold Water; 

" and they have but one fort of Food, living 

" with great Frugality.'* 

They praflife Bleeding, which is performed 
by taking a Knife and fcarifying the Back of the 
Hand, over a Vein, then put an Awl under 
the Vein, and lift it up free from the Skin ; cut 
the Vein with a Knife, and, when it hath bled 
the Qiiantity they think proper, they put a Bit 
of wet Leather over it and tie it up. 

They hold in great Efteem the Rind of Pine 
Tree, or of Juniper, and alfo an Herb which 
tkey call IVifeaca Pucca or Bitter Herb, 

4 Strabo, L. 3. l<?6. 


Difcovery of a North-Wejl P^Jjage. 235 

It is an Opinion amongft them, that the Know- Novemb. 
ledge of Phyfick is not to be acquired, but is 
hereditary -, no one can be a Dodtor but the Son 
of a Do6bor. 

As to the other Set of People befides the Doc- 
tors, which are thejuglers or Conjurers. It is a re- 
ceived Opinion amongft thelndians iu thofe Parts, 
that there are two Spirits, one whom they call 
Manitou, to which Spirit, they attribute all the 
Perfections of the Deity, the other Spirit they 
call Vitico, and that Spirit they imagine to be 
the Caufe of all the Evil and Misfortune that 
happens to them, and concerns himfelf much 
with them. Thefe Juglers pretend to an Inti- 
macy with Vitico, ere6t a Tent which will juft 
hold them, and is Ihaped much like a Butter- 
Churn •, black their Faces, and then go alone 
into fuch Tent where they will make a great 
Variety of Noifesin imitation of Animals, jump 
about, and make a great Stir. During the Time, 
all the Indians who are near, keep a profound 
Silence, and perhaps, when the Conjurer comes 
out, he will tell them yitico woul4 not come, or 
he hath feen him, and Fiiico fays fo and fo, as 
to what thofe Indians want to know who hired 
him to conjure for them •, which will be feme- 
times private Perfons, or thofe of a Tent, or of 
feverai Tents •, if fome of his Predi6lions chance 
to be compleatcd, he is then in Reputation ; if 
not, he fuifers only in his Chara6ter, but not the 

H h 2 Thefe 

2^5 A Vo y A G E for the 

Novemb.. Thefe Conjurers, or Jiiglers, will alfo pretend 
that they have fuch an Intereft with Vi^'ico that 
they can get him to do particular Perions a 
fhrewd Turn, and often will get Prefents from 
Perfons whom they have threatened, to appeafe 
them, that they may not make Ufe of their In- 
tereft with Vitico to the Perions Difadvantage. 

They alfo pretend they can procure by Conjur- 
ing whatever they de fire. One imagined himfeif 
fo dextCiOu?, as he und^^rtook to impofe on the 
People of the Faftory, telling the Governor of 
the Fadory that he could conjure as good Bra/tl 
Tobacco as the Governor iold, and appointed 
him a time to give a Proof of it, the Governor 
and two more went agreeable to it, to the Indian^ s 
Tent, the Indian enters the Tent naked, all but 
the Skin which pafles between his Legs, jumps 
and dances about, and with great Diftortions of 
Body, and this for near two Hours, at length 
whips his Hand under his Arm-pit, takes from 
thence fome Tobacco which he had concealed 
there, then rubs his Hand violently on his Breaft, 
and fays the Tobacco was coming. The Go- 
vernor and others who had kept a ftrift Eye 
on him, let him know they faw him take the 
Tobacco from under his Arm, upon which the 
Indian was fo much enraged, that they foon 
quitted the Tent. This was told amongft the 
Indians^ but his Chara6i;er was too well eftablifhed 
to have any EfFed, for upon a Time after, (thefe 


Difcovery of a North-Wefi Paffage, zyj 

Juglers pretending to work Cures by Charms) Novemb. 
there was an Indian Woman very ill, the Sur- 
geon of the Fadlory took all proper Care of her, 
but fhe imagined there would be no Cure 
effected without a Conjurer, and pitched upon 
this fame Indian for the Man, he came to his 
Patient, fucked her Breads, her Thighs, her 
Legs, and, after about three or four Hours of 
this Application, he then faid fhe was almoft 
cured, and foon after pulls out of his Mouth 
a Parcel of Hawks Claws and Partridge Feet, 
as many as would lie in the Palm of his Hand, 
thefe he pretended he had extradted, and that 
they were aftually the Caufe of her Diforder. 
The Woman foon after recovered. 







V. 1 








UJ- ^ Q 



Howard N. Eavenson 

Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Dec. 2004 



1 1 1 Thomson Park Dnve 
Cranberry Township. PA 16066 





<< Of /;> 


Howard N- Eavenson 

Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Dec. 2004 



1 1 1 Thomson Par'* Dnve 
Crantwrry Township. PA 16066 

91 l^ 



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